Thomas Scarice, the superintendent of Madison Public Schools in Connecticut, has been a vocal critic of high-stakes test-based school reform. Earlier this year he sent a letter to state legislators explaining why these “reforms will not result in improved conditions since they are not grounded in research.” In the following piece, he looks at what he sees as the worst effects of the accountability movement.
By Thomas Scarice
On May 25, 2006, former Enron executives Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were found guilty of fraud and conspiracy in perhaps the most high-profile scandal of corruption as a consequence of high-stakes measures. Lay and Skilling fraudulently inflated the company’s stock price to meet the high-stakes demands of Wall Street’s expectations. Not only did Lay and Skilling conspire to inflate stock prices, but they also distorted standard accounting practices to solely meet targets. The seeds of high-stakes schemes yield corruption and distortion.
The Enron case does not stand alone in the history of corruption and distortion amidst high-stakes indicators, such as stock prices. As academic scholars David Berliner and Sharon Nichols demonstrate in their work, the annals of corporate history are tattered with similar cases of corruption and distortion driven by high-stakes pressures. High-stakes accountability and incentive system failures, as well as blatant fraud, at places such as Qwest, the Heinz Company, and Sears auto repair shops, illustrate that such schemes inevitably bring unintended consequences. As people, we are free to choose our actions, but we are not free to choose the intended or unintended consequences of such actions. As author Steven Covey has written, “When you pick up one end of the stick, you pick up the other end.”
The ubiquity of this principle is evident in the fields of medicine, athletics, higher education, and politics. Quite simply, as the stakes rise, so do the occurrences of corruption and distortion. Sadly, education is not immune to this principle. Over a decade of high-stakes accountability schemes thrust upon students, teachers, and schools have yielded sordid tales of outright corruption and cheating scandals. Although such acts of indignity garner ornate headlines and self-righteous accusations about the lack of moral character, to which there is truth, given the inescapable unintended consequences of high-stakes schemes, such corrupt behaviors and distortions of a given professional practice are inevitable and of no surprise. Yet, we march on in the high-stakes test-based accountability era with the high probability that posterity will ask an indicting question of how a generation of educators could commit such offenses when they knew better.
Beneath the surface of these obvious problems lies a more insidious threat to the quality of public education for all children. This threat begins with the redefinition of a quality education and ends with a decimating blow to the professional practice of education. While frivolous topics related to the Common Core are debated in the open arena — e.g. whether or not the Common Core is a curriculum — a redefinition of quality education has destructively taken root. This redefinition, one that feebly defines quality education as good high-stakes test scores, and quality teaching as the efforts to produce good high-stakes test scores, leaves well-intended educators consequentially conflating goals with measures.
Without question, measures, qualitative and quantitative, representing a variety of indicators that mark the values of an organization, are necessary fuel for the engine of continuous improvement. High-quality tests, specifically used for the purposes for which they were designed, can and should play a productive role in this process. But, measures are not goals. Regrettably, just as Lay and Skilling did in bringing a multibillion dollar corporation to its knees, in this era, the shallowest of thinkers have passively accepted the paradigm that measures are goals.
And finally, we are left with the greatest crime committed against the professional practice of education as a result of the corrosive effect of the high-stakes testing era. In an effort to thrive, and perhaps, just to survive, in a redefined world of quality education, a soft, though sometimes harsh, distortion of pedagogy, has perniciously spread to classrooms, just as the Enron executives distorted sound accounting practices to meet high-stakes targets. This will indeed be our greatest regret.
Corruption and distortion as a result of high-stakes schemes sealed the fate of Enron and many other organizations like it. History will tell the story about the future of the high stakes test-based accountability era and its unintended consequences. And again, we march on in this era with the high probability that posterity will ask an indicting question of how a generation of educators could commit such offenses when they knew better.