The findings won’t say whether cellphones are safe or dangerous, or if they can cause cancer — a hotly contested question that top scientific organizations say is still uncertain.
But news of the congressional investigation has renewed attention on the issue and put a spotlight on persistent and controversial advocates such as Davis.
“The FCC hears us now,” said Davis, a former Clinton administration health adviser and an epidemiologist who co-founded the public interest group Environmental Health Trust. “This is just the start.”
Davis is among a handful of scientists and health advocates who have for several years warned that cellphone radiation may cause brain and breast cancer and reduce sperm count. Their arguments, advanced in breathless speeches and on Web sites that sometimes feature gruesome videos, have largely been brushed aside by U.S. officials, and consumers continue to voraciously adopt cellular gadgets.
The FCC said in June that it was contemplating whether it needed to update its rules, but the agency pointed to science from reputable health experts who dismiss fears that cellphones are dangerous.
“Our action . . . is a routine review of our standards,” FCC spokeswoman Tammy Sun said in a June statement about the agency’s review. “We are confident that, as set, the emissions guidelines for devices pose no risks to consumers.”
Even Davis agrees it is not 100 percent clear that cellphones cause cancer. But she and others have argued that government regulators need to update the way they approach cellphone safety.
The advocates have pushed for the FCC to rethink its calculations — whether, for instance, its radiation limits take into account the way many consumers carry their phones in their pockets and on their belts for hours. They also want the agency to set different guidelines for children because young skulls are thinner and may be more vulnerable to the radio waves from the phones.
Changes at the state level
In California, Maine and Oregon, Davis and groups such as the Environmental Working Group have pushed for cellphone companies to put radiation measurements on the outside of phone packages.
Currently, these warnings are buried inside user manuals. Documents that accompany the iPhone, for example, state that radiation measurements “may exceed the FCC exposure guidelines for body-worn operations if positioned less than 15 mm (5
8 inch) from the body (e.g. when carrying iPhone in your pocket).”
“We need organizations like the Environmental Working Group who are asking the right questions and pushing for more research where necessary on this important issue,” said Rep. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.), who pushed for the GAO investigation.