An aging population that has begun to spend down its savings. A hobbled power grid. A drop in economic output that may be longer and deeper than first anticipated.
Although Japan is widely considered to have the financial wherewithal to bounce back from the calamity that struck three weeks ago, analysts are beginning to wonder if shifts in global production patterns and changes in Japanese society will make the country’s path to recovery more difficult.
April 1 (Bloomberg) -- Takatoshi Ito, a University of Tokyo professor and former adviser to the Japanese government, talks about the outlook for the economy amid reconstruction following last month's earthquake and power outages. He speaks with Bloomberg's Ryan Chilcote in Cernobbio, Italy.
Central to Japan’s ability to bounce back is the capacity of its government to borrow seemingly limitless amounts of money at cheap rates, a gravity-defying phenomenon that has remained constant for more than two decades despite the country’s world-leading levels of public debt. With more than $10 trillion in loans outstanding, an amount equivalent to more than 200 percent of the country’s annual economic output, the estimated $300 billion repair bill does not seem so large. The country also sits on a trillion-dollar stockpile of foreign reserves, and confidence in Japan remains so entrenched that interest rates since the disaster have not budged.
But the reasons behind Japan’s ability to borrow are unique to the country itself and won’t necessarily remain the case forever — a fact the International Monetary Fund noted in a paper last year warning that some of Japan’s built-in advantages are beginning to disappear.
The recent natural disaster and nuclear crisis, some analysts suggest, may hasten the change.
“I am not terribly optimistic about this,” Masaaki Kanno, a Japan analyst for J.P. Morgan Chase, said in a conference call last week. Though Kanno, like many others, sees the potential for a sharp rise in economic activity as Japan rebuilds, he said the outcome of the recent disasters could undercut some of Japan’s borrowing ability and lead to higher interest rates. It may also prompt global companies to diversify their sources of parts and materials away from Japan — a potentially difficult process, to be sure, but one likely to deepen the longer Japan’s industrial facilities are hobbled by the ongoing nuclear crisis and electricity shortages.
Economists see different forces at work, with the final outcome unclear. Marcus Noland, of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, said the country’s high productivity, capital investment and ability to innovate mean it is likely to retain its central role in global automotive, electronics, technology and other supply chains. Yet competition is only getting stiffer, and “there certainly are some Korean or Taiwanese firms that can . . . build up rapidly to fill in demand should production remain depressed,” said Michael Auslin, a resident scholar and Japan expert at the American Enterprise Institute.
One reason Japan has been able to borrow money at such low rates is its prodigious export economy, and the annual surpluses that generates. The flow of wealth into the country has been recycled by Japanese companies and banks into government bonds. If the annual surplus narrows because of a fall in exports or an expected rise in imports — and that was already happening before the earthquake and tsunami — it could erode Japan’s reputation as a safe-haven economy that can finance itself.