A diplomat’s son, Mr. Fuentes was working for the Mexican Foreign Ministry when he catapulted to prominence with his first novel, “Where the Air is Clear” (1958). Presenting an extravagant portrait of inequality and moral corruption in modern Mexico, the book established its 29-year-old author as a daring social critic and prose stylist and helped usher in a renaissance in Latin American literature known as the “Boom.”
As his literary career progressed, Mr. Fuentes blended his fascination with politics, and his fervent depiction of erotic couplings, with broader themes such as the inescapable influence of history, the intersection of native and European cultures, and the betrayal of national ideals for personal gain.
He wrote dozens of books, including “The Death of Artemio Cruz” (1962) and “Terra Nostra” (1975), and he earned the highest literary honors in the Spanish-speaking world. In the United States, Mr. Fuentes is best known for “The Old Gringo” (1985), which became the first novel by a Mexican to appear on the New York Times bestseller list. Loosely based on the disappearance of the journalist Ambrose Bierce in Mexico in 1913, “The Old Gringo” was turned into a film starring Jane Fonda and Gregory Peck.
Although Mexico was the overriding subject of his work, Mr. Fuentes spent most his life living in Europe and the United States. Having spent six formative years in Washington as a child, Mr. Fuentes chose to think of himself as a “transopolitan” who felt at home anywhere history and culture were valued or debated.
In addition to his career as a novelist, Mr. Fuentes led an intellectually restless life as a political provocateur, an essayist, a screenwriter and playwright, an editor, an ambassador and a cultural historian.
Physically striking in his youth, with wavy brown hair and a mustache, he added to his luster by romancing movie stars Jean Seberg and Jeanne Moreau. He socialized with many of the world’s leading artists and intellectuals, including the American novelist William Styron, Spanish filmmaker Luis Bunuel and Swiss playwright Friedrich Durrenmatt.
As his star rose, Mr. Fuentes promoted other Latin American novelists, particularly his close friend Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Colombian writer and future Nobel laureate whose work was largely unknown when they met in the 1960s.
According to Garcia Marquez biographer Gerald Martin, Mr. Fuentes’s international contacts made him the Boom’s most important “creator and propagandist,” a man whose “intellectual generosity was unrivaled.”
Mr. Fuentes was a prolific writer into his 70s and 80s, remaining adamant that words should never simply delight but should challenge or even exasperate.