As director of photography from 1963 to 1985, Mr. Gilka recruited and deployed field photographers who scaled mountains, plumbed oceans, braved the exotic near and far from home and sometimes risked their lives to send back an image that would not disappoint.
He commanded both respect and fear. Outside his office, he posted a sign admonishing visitors to wipe their knees before entering; near his desk was a kneeler. Steve McCurry — the photographer whose 1985 cover image of the “Afghan girl” became one of National Geographic’s most acclaimed photos — compared a visit with Mr. Gilka to Judgment Day.
He may not have been gentle, but he was often right. Mr. Gilka “moved the magazine from posed and orchestrated pictures into candid, documentary photojournalism,” said Terry Eiler, who worked for Mr. Gilka and later co-founded the Ohio University School of Visual Communications.
Among his early hires was William Albert Allard, who became one of the magazine’s marquee photographers. Allard said in an interview that Mr. Gilka “took me off the street and got me my first professional job” — a project documenting the Amish in Pennsylvania.
Another hire, David Doubilet, became renowned for his underwater photography. He was bitten and poisoned in the line of duty. But his worst fear, he once told Photo District News, was “a vision of Gilka’s face saying, ‘Where the hell is the picture, Doubilet?!’ ”
Mr. Gilka cultivated the intense loyalty of his photographers by letting them run with their ideas, even when those ideas might have seemed, to another editor, harebrained. Bruce Dale, another hire, said he photographed a bullet barreling through a watch — a photographic pun for “killing time.” He captured the courtship behavior of roadrunners by mounting a camera aboard a small remote-controlled vehicle.
Mr. Gilka also was credited with diversifying the staff to include women. Among those he hired were Annie Griffiths, Jodi Cobb and Susan Smith — all of whom went on to distinguished careers. He hired Sarah Leen, the magazine’s senior photo editor, as an intern.
Mr. Gilka delighted in giving photographers the extravagant budgets that the era allowed. Dale recalled buying mice for the rattlesnakes that he kept in a beer cooler and used to attract roadrunners. Another photographer once bought an airplane. Expense-report forms provided for “gifts to natives.”
And when photographers needed to see their families — after months on the road in a lifestyle romanticized in “The Bridges of Madison County” — Mr. Gilka found a way to bring them home.
Robert Emanuel Gilka was born July 12, 1916, in Milwaukee. He shoveled sand to work his way through Marquette University, where he received a bachelor’s degree in journalism in 1939. During World War II, he served in the Pacific and in Europe, including at a field hospital in England, and left with the rank of captain.
He got his first journalism job at a newspaper in Zanesville, Ohio, and was later hired by the Milwaukee Journal, where he rose to oversee the picture desk. National Geographic hired him in 1958 as a picture editor.
Mr. Gilka died at the Sunrise Senior Living assisted living center in Arlington County of complications from pneumonia, said his son Jeff Gilka. Besides his son, of LaFayette, N.Y., survivors include three other children, Greer Gilka of Arlington, Jena Gilka of Alexandria and Gregory Gilka of Machias, Maine; a grandson; and two great-grandchildren. His wife, Janet Bailey Gilka, was regarded as a den mother to National Geographic photographers and died in 2004 after 63 years of marriage.
The image of the Afghan girl, whom McCurry photographed in a Pakistani refugee camp in 1984, was one of the last covers published during Mr. Gilka’s tenure at National Geographic.
In an interview, McCurry recalled that some editors thought the image of the young woman, with her searing gaze, might be too disturbing for American coffee tables. Another image showed the girl covering the lower half of her face with her hands and a head scarf and looking more “quiet” than tortured, McCurry said.
Mr. Gilka argued that the first photograph more accurately conveyed the reality of refugee life and persuaded other editors to run it. They did. The young woman has been called the “Afghan Mona Lisa.”