Adm. Wilkinson, who also held the initial command of the Navy’s first nuclear-powered surface ship in the early 1960s, had taught college-level chemistry and mathematics before serving aboard submarines during World War II.
His dual background as a professor and naval officer caught the attention of Adm. Hyman G. Rickover, who directed the Navy’s postwar program in nuclear propulsion. Historical accounts have noted that Rickover selected Adm. Wilkinson at least in part because he did not attend the U.S. Naval Academy and had an independent approach to shipbuilding and sailing.
“Rickover was looking for guys bright enough to think, design and build something that hadn’t been built before,” retired Vice Adm. Kenneth M. Carr, who served aboard the Nautilus with Adm. Wilkinson, said in interview. “He was looking for a guy who had the practical experience in submarining and the dreaming experience of being a scientist.”
Adm. Wilkinson received advanced training in nuclear physics at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago and a U.S. Atomic Energy Commission facility in Pennsylvania. He performed calculations about the size and configuration of the reactor that eventually would power the Nautilus.
By 1949, he presented a schedule to Rickover for development of the first nuclear submarine.
“That schedule called for this as-yet-unnamed ship to go to sea on 1 January 1955,” he said in a 2005 speech. “We went later — on the 17th.”
Rickover’s nuclear program was controversial among Navy brass, but President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave it a boost in his 1953 “Atoms for Peace” speech at the United Nations, in which he called for constructive uses of nuclear energy. The next year, first lady Mamie Eisenhower christened the Nautilus.
The Nautilus carried the same name as an early submarine built by Robert Fulton and the underwater vessel featured in Jules Verne’s 1870 novel “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.” It became one of the Navy’s most celebrated postwar achievements, as members of Congress, scientists and journalists flocked for the chance to climb aboard the 319-foot vessel.
Adm. Wilkinson, then with the rank of commander, led the submarine’s crew of 11 officers and 85 enlisted men as it left its berth in Groton, Conn., on Jan. 17, 1955. He sent a terse cable from the Nautilus, which has entered naval lore and is engraved on the U.S. Navy Memorial in Washington: “Underway on nuclear power.”
Eugene Parks Wilkinson was born Aug. 10, 1918, in Long Beach, Calif. Both his parents died when he was a child, and he was raised by grandparents in Holtville, Calif. He was known to friends and family throughout his life as Dennis, the name of his father and grandfather.