Prince Nayef became crown prince — first in line to succeed the king — in 2011.
In recent years, Prince Nayef had emerged as a close U.S. partner on counterterrorism and the fight to vanquish al-Qaeda. As interior minister since 1975, he was responsible for protecting the Saudi realm and maintaining order within its borders.
He led a vicious campaign against al-Qaeda after a series of attacks inside Saudi Arabia between 2003 and 2006. He was hailed for helping to suppress Islamic radicalism.
Former U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia Chas Freeman said in an interview with The Washington Post on Saturday that Prince Nayef was brutally efficient against Saudi Arabia’s enemies.
“It was a comprehensive and quite successful counterterror strategy, which Nayef was intimately involved with at every stage,” Freeman said.
But he was long considered a capricious ally, and his relationship with the United States was complicated by a deep-seated distrust of Americans.
During the 1970s, the United States presented him with a new desk as a gift to honor his rise in status at the Interior Ministry. According to Steve Coll’s 2008 book “The Bin Ladens,” Prince Nayef later learned the desk was bugged with a CIA listening device.
After the discovery, the prince became increasingly hostile toward the U.S. government and sometimes failed to cooperate in terror-related issues with the White House and FBI.
In 1996, he refused to meet with FBI Director Louis J. Freeh, who came to Saudi Arabia to oversee the investigation of the Khobar Towers bombing, in which 19 Americans were killed.
Instead, low-ranking deputies met with Freeh, while Prince Nayef relaxed on his private yacht anchored in the Red Sea.
In the immediate aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, Prince Nayef said he did not think that any Saudis participated in the attacks, although it was later determined that 15 of the 19 hijackers were from the kingdom. He claimed that Jews were responsible for the attacks.
His attitude toward al-Qaeda began to change in 2003, after a series of bombings targeted Saudi government facilities and members of the royal family. He swiftly took action against individuals with suspected ties to al-Qaeda and implemented programs in mosques around the country to refute and discredit extremist ideologies.
Nayef bin Abdul Aziz was born in 1933, in the settlement of Taif, and grew up in a childhood replete with the trappings of power and privilege.
He was the 23rd son of the kingdom’s founder, Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, and his favorite wife, Hassa bint Ahmad Al-Sudairi.
Prince Nayef drew much of his prestige from being a member of the “Sudairi Seven,” an elite clique of brothers who ruled the realm’s most prominent institutions.