For at least a year, Alexis was a regular member of the Wat Busayadhammavanaram Meditation Center of Fort Worth, where many evenings he was one of about five people who attended the hour-long silent meditation. (On Sundays, the service was larger; about 20 people would come.)
At a special service there Tuesday night, a monk in a deep gold robe told the group that no one can prevent suffering or growing old. Without specifying Alexis’s name, he offered hope that in death, the community’s fallen member would find peace.
“I hurt for the people that lost their lives,” said Kathy Saburn, who attends meditation there. And she hurt for Alexis. “The man obviously was in hell,” she said.
Asian immigrants brought Buddhism to the United States in the 1800s, but counterculture figures, including writer Jack Kerouac, brought it to prominence in the years after World War II.
Celebrities who took up the cause of Tibet, including actor Richard Gere, raised Buddhism’s profile again in the 1980s, and Americans continue to see Buddhist practices as a healthy alternative to American ambition.
From the start, Western Buddhism has overlapped greatly with the field of psychology. Many prominent American teachers of Buddhism were psychologists, and research shows many people pursue meditation to ease psychological stress.
“There are many therapists who are Buddhist or who take materials from Buddhism,” said Charles Jones, a religion and culture professor at Catholic University.
He added: “Mental illness is largely about suffering, about mental states that cause us to suffer. Buddhism is a religion that has made that a large focus.”
A diverse community
Although relatively small, the American Buddhist community is the most diverse in the world. But it tends to cluster: Ethnic groups of Asians generally have their own temples, and other Buddhists with higher incomes and educations tend to follow what Strand calls “the upper-middle way.”
Thai Buddhists are part of the Theravada tradition, which is common across South Asia and Southeast Asia and claims to be the oldest and most authentic form of Buddhism, Jones said.
A characteristic of Theravada is the huge range of meditation techniques. “A quotation you find in Theravada literature would be something like . . . ‘The Buddha is the doctor who has the 84,000 medicines for the 84,000 illnesses,’” Jones said.
Whether Alexis was able to access such teachings is unclear.
Non-Asian Buddhists in America, Jones said, tend to belong to the Theravada, Zen and Tibetan branches, yet generally they are separate from ethnically Buddhist communities.
“He might have found some real cultural barriers and a lack of understanding if he was trying to practice there,” Jones said.
‘Looking for some way for his life’
Somsak Srisan, who was Alexis’s former landlord in Fort Worth and knew him from the temple, said Alexis spoke about leaving his job at a local Navy base, but not in depth. They also spoke superficially about Alexis’s interest in becoming a Buddhist monk.
“He was looking for some way for his life,” Srisan said. “Looking for something to be a guideline for him.”
To some, the Navy Yard rampage raises difficult questions about Buddhism and meditation as ways to improve mental health, especially for people who delve deeply into meditation but may not have a well-developed understanding of Buddhism’s history and theology.
“Meditation alone may have no effect whatsoever on one’s morals and hence overall life,” wrote Justin Whitaker, a Buddhist ethicist, in his blog American Buddhist Perspectives. “And it might also, as many people find out early in the process, actually open up deeper layers of pain, anger, and guilt that have been effectively repressed.”
The possibility that Alexis tried meditation to ease his mental suffering prompted Strand to wonder whether he might have sought out Buddhism “as a last hope to avert this tragedy.”
“It may be that he was seeking a meditative discipline that would help him to get a handle on that or to learn to work with those voices to still them or to give his mind something else to do,” Strand said, referring to reports that Alexis was haunted by mysterious voices. “Buddhism tends not to be a quick fix for such stuff.”
Leslie Minora in Fort Worth contributed to this report.