ADRIAN, Mich.— When Medicaid expands next year under the federal health-care law to include all adults living close to the poverty line, one group of eligible beneficiaries will be several million men and women who have spent time in state and federal prisons and jails.
The Justice Department estimates that former inmates and detainees will constitute about 35 percent of the people who will qualify for Medicaid coverage in the states expanding their programs to anyone earning less than 138 percent of the federal poverty level, or about $15,000 for an individual in 2013. The Congressional Budget Office estimated earlier this year that 9 million people will get the new coverage next year.
In addition, the expansion could help states cover the medical costs of some inmates who need hospitalization or other expensive specialized care outside of prison.
Michigan, which has long been recognized as an innovator in inmate health care, is expanding its Medicaid program. Officials here say that funding could help cover the needs of some seriously ill inmates, as well as provide new coverage for released offenders, which could be a valuable tool in curbing recidivism.
“A significant number have never prepared their own meals. They don’t know how to shop, or how to budget,” said Tammy Meek, prisoner reentry coordinator for the Gus Harrison Correctional Facility in this small city in southern Michigan. “Some can’t even write their name in cursive. Health care is critical in protecting the public and giving the client [former inmate] the tools he needs to succeed.”
But the Medicaid coverage for former offenders has stoked the interest of some powerful Republican members of Congress, including one from Michigan, House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton. He and health subcommittee Chairman Joe Pitts (R-Pa.) in October asked the Government Accountability Office to review the effect of the health-care law’s Medicaid provisions on former offenders. “We must better understand the true costs of expanding the program to any new population and weigh such costs with the competing interests of our nation’s most vulnerable law-
abiding citizens,” they wrote.
The congressmen’s request notes that some researchers have suggested that large numbers of people added to the Medicaid rolls in an expansion could be prisoners. But ordinary, in-prison health care is not covered by Medicaid. The Medicaid law, passed in 1965, denies federal matching funds for convicted prisoners — about 1.5 million adults nationwide — and for 750,000 unconvicted detainees held for trial or petty crimes and misdemeanors in county and city jails on any given day. Each state, county or city must pay for the medical needs of all detainees from its general funds. The Affordable Care Act does not change this law.
However, since 1997, the federal government has allowed matching Medicaid funds to pay for specialized hospital care for 24 hours or more outside the prison system for inmates who were enrolled in or eligible for Medicaid before their incarcerations.Since most states narrowly draw the eligibility rules for adults, this funding generally covered people such as the frail elderly, patients suffering from serious disabilities and chronic diseases, and pregnant women.
Michigan received $8 million in matching funds for that program during the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30, state Department of Corrections spokesman Russ Marlan said. Next year, when about half the states have agreed to expand their Medicaid programs, the number of these patients should rise dramatically, as will the federal matching funds, Marlan said.Michigan could receive $20 million in Medicaid funding from the federal government in 2014 to help pay for such specialized treatment of prisoners, “but it’s probably too early to know for sure.”
Potentially far more important for the state’s bottom line, Medicaid expansion will also cover low-income inmates leaving prison.
“Having access to health care and mental health care contributes to their success in staying out of prison,” said Heidi E. Washington, warden at the Charles E. Egeler correction facility in Jackson, Mich.
Helping former inmates adjust to the outside world has been shown in many studies to curb recidivism. Michigan, which has used state funds for reentry programs that include health care for nearly a decade, has seen its prison population drop in the past five years, from 51,554 to 43,636. For released offenders with special needs — mostly mental disorders — recidivism rates plummeted from 50 percent in 1998 to 22.5 percent in 2012. Michigan spends $35,000 each year for every imprisoned inmate.
But curbing recidivism doesn’t just hinge on having funding from programs such as Medicaid, said Ira Burnim, legal director of the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. “These folks have to have services, and when they have access to housing and local support, they do very, very well.”
Kaiser Health News is an editorially independent program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit, nonpartisan health policy research and communication organization not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.