Physiology or Medicine
●James E. Rothman (United States)
●Randy W. Schekman (United States)
●Thomas C. Südhof (Germany, United States)
For plotting how cells transfer vital materials, such as hormones and brain chemicals, to other cells, giving insight into diseases including Alzheimer’s, autism and diabetes.
●François Englert (Belgium)
●Peter W. Higgs (United Kingdom)
For predicting the existence of the Higgs boson particle that explains how elementary matter attained the mass to form stars and planets.
●Martin Karplus (United States, Austria)
●Michael Levitt (United States, United Kingdom, Israel)
●Arieh Warshel (United States, Israel)
For laying the foundations for the development of computers to understand complex chemical processes from the purification of exhaust fumes to photosynthesis, which helps in the development of drugs.
The Nobel Prize in literature will be announced Thursday, the Nobel Peace Prize on Friday and the economics prize Monday.