The National Security Agency has been forced to respond to unprecedented disclosures about its surveillance programs. Those programs have been assailed as a violation of privacy rights by critics and defended as critical to U.S. national security by intelligence officials.

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  • FULL COVERAGE: NSA SECRETS

22.1 million compromised by Office of Personnel Management breaches

22.1 million compromised by Office of Personnel Management breaches

Two 2014 hacks of Office of Personnel Management systems exposed details — from fingerprints to financial and health records — about federal employees, contractors and their friends and families.

DOJ approved NSA targeting of foreign hacker ‘signatures’ under 2008 law

DOJ approved NSA targeting of foreign hacker  ‘signatures’ under 2008 law

Agency lawyers raised concerns that large amounts of Americans’ data could also be collected.

Congressional action on NSA is a milestone in the post-9/11 world

Congressional action on NSA is a milestone in the post-9/11 world

Two years after Snowden’s leaks, lawmakers have curtailed the government’s surveillance powers.

Senators pledge to amend House bill after some NSA powers halted

Senators pledge to amend House bill after some NSA powers halted

Republicans were unable to act before the deadline after Sen. Rand Paul foiled the extension.

Senate rejects compromise bill on surveillance

Senate rejects compromise bill on surveillance

The measure would have ended the NSA’s bulk collection of private phone records. Senators aren’t convening again until May 31, just hours before the legal authority for the existing program expires.

NSA surveillance authority lurches closer to expiration

NSA surveillance authority lurches closer to expiration

Senate remains divided on how to proceed with renewal of bulk phone-record collection program.

NSA may need to begin winding down surveillance program this week

NSA may need to begin winding down surveillance program this week

Without an extension from Congress by Friday, the agency will have to begin shuttering the program.

House approves measure ending NSA bulk phone data collection program

House approves measure ending NSA bulk phone data collection program

But the measure may stall because Senate Republican leaders want to renew the program.

Court ruling boosts case for ending collection of U.S. phone records

Court ruling boosts case for ending collection of U.S. phone records

Many say that extending the program through a “clean reauthorization” just became less compelling.

NSA program on phone records is illegal, court rules

NSA program on phone records is illegal, court rules

Congress never intended to authorize the massive collection of Americans’ call data, the judges said.

Former CIA official cites agency’s failure to see al-Qaeda’s rebound

Former CIA official cites agency’s failure to see al-Qaeda’s rebound

In a new book, former deputy director Michael Morell says the agency provided policymakers with assessments that proved mistaken.

Defense Secretary unveils new Pentagon cyberstrategy

Defense Secretary unveils new Pentagon cyberstrategy

Ashton Carter seeks to engage the tech industry and encourage innovation.

McConnell bill would extend NSA surveillance

McConnell bill would extend NSA surveillance

The move comes amid a bipartisan bid to scale back the government’s spying powers under the Patriot Act.

WikiLeaks posts searchable database of Sony e-mails, documents

WikiLeaks posts searchable database of Sony e-mails, documents

U.S. officials said the material was first stolen by North Korea as revenge for a movie about Kim Jong Un.

Why confidential tips to the government may not be confidential after all

Why confidential tips to the government may not be confidential after all

Government agencies promise confidentiality to tipsters. But experts say that’s impossible without encryption.

As encryption spreads, U.S. grapples with clash between privacy, security

As encryption spreads, U.S. grapples with clash between privacy, security

Privacy advocates say attempts to bypass encryption will create vulnerabilities for hackers to exploit.

Tech firms and privacy groups press for curbs on NSA surveillance powers

Tech firms and privacy groups press for curbs on NSA surveillance powers

Security hawks want to preserve the spy agency authorities as the deadline to act approaches.

The latest hot job in the Washington revolving door? Cybersecurity.

The latest hot job in the Washington revolving door? Cybersecurity.

NSA general counsel is latest in a string of government officials to take jobs in the private sector focused on cyber security.

CIA looks to expand its cyber espionage capabilities

CIA looks to expand its cyber espionage capabilities

The new emphasis would be part of a broad restructuring of the agency.

NSA, Britain’s GCHQ allegedly seized encryption keys for millions of phones

NSA, Britain’s GCHQ allegedly seized encryption keys for millions of phones

The operation allegedly targeted a Dutch company that makes SIM cards for wireless network providers.

Obama moves to tighten surveillance guidelines

Obama moves to tighten surveillance guidelines

Amid action, uncertainty lingers for NSA program as the authority for data collection is set to expire in June.

DOJ: U.S. kept secret database of Americans’ calls overseas

Justice Department acknowledges law enforcement swept up records from phone companies until 2013.

President’s legislation would protect companies that share cyberthreat data

President’s legislation would protect companies that share cyberthreat data

The proposal also includes measures that would help protect consumers and students.

Berlin is secretly feeding data
on Germans to the U.S.

Berlin is secretly feeding data <br>on Germans to the U.S.

Despite Germany’s vocal anger over NSA surveillance, it’s reluctantly enlisting U.S. help.

German researchers discover a flaw that could let anyone listen to your cell calls and read your texts

German researchers discover a flaw that could let anyone listen to your cell calls and read your texts

The spying can happen even on cellular networks using the most advanced encryption now available.

Congress sets limits on overseas data collection

Congress sets limits on overseas data collection

Backers of the measure said it sets a precedent for legislative action on an executive branch program.

Tech firms tussle with DOJ over the right to say ‘zero’

Some companies are letting users know they haven’t received federal requests for data, frustrating officials.

Records reveal why court shut down Bush-era spy program

Documents shed new light on a pivotal moment in U.S. surveillance history.

Why Edward Snowden thinks Amazon is “morally irresponsible.“

Why Edward Snowden thinks Amazon is “morally irresponsible.“

Lack of encryption on the retailer’s site allows governments to snoop on the reading habits of their citizens.

Report: U.S., Israeli companies supply spy gear to repressive regimes

Report: U.S., Israeli companies supply spy gear to repressive regimes

The surveillance technology is sold to Central Asian nations that smother basic rights, a watchdog group says.

Amid renewed fear of terrorism, NSA reform bill blocked

Amid renewed fear of terrorism, NSA reform bill blocked

GOP advocates for the agency and others appealed to renewed terrorist fears in move to block Senate debate.

Bill on surveillance reform fails to advance in Senate

Bill on surveillance reform fails to advance in Senate

The legislation would put limits on the so-called bulk collection of Americans’ records by the NSA.

WhatsApp IM platform will encrypt data for millions

WhatsApp IM platform will encrypt data for millions

The decision by the world’s most popular instant-messaging platform is part of a big shift in the tech industry.

U.S. marshals said to conduct airborne phone surveillance

U.S. marshals said to conduct airborne phone surveillance

The program reportedly gathers more data than the controversial, land-based StingRay initiative.

Senate poised to vote on USA Freedom Act

Legislation would end the National Security Agency’s bulk collection of records about Americans’ phone calls.

2 Americans freed by North Korea back in U.S.

2 Americans freed by North Korea back in U.S.

Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper won the release of Matthew Miller and Kenneth Bae.

In largest such action, authorities strike against Internet’s black markets

In largest such action, authorities strike against Internet’s black markets

‘Operation Onymous’ targeted illicit trade but has raised alarm among advocates of online anonymity.

Chinese cyberspying group identified

Chinese cyberspying group identified

The Group, more skilled than Unit 61398, targets dissidents, industry, government agencies and journalists.

T-Mobile quietly hardens part of its U.S. cellular network against snooping

T-Mobile quietly hardens part of its U.S. cellular network against snooping

An upgrade of its system is slowing rolling out.

FBI chief wants tech firms to make devices wiretap-ready

FBI chief wants tech firms to make devices wiretap-ready

James Comey says Apple’s and Google’s new encryption efforts can help criminals elude the law.

Twitter sues U.S., wants to disclose requests for data

Twitter sues U.S., wants to disclose requests for data

The company said U.S. restrictions on speaking publicly about government data requests violate the First Amendment.

Holder urges tech companies to leave device backdoors open for police

Holder urges tech companies to leave device backdoors open for police

His remarks followed announcements from Apple and Google earlier this month of new smartphone encryption policies.

The toughest case: What if Osama bin Laden had an iPhone?

The toughest case: What if Osama bin Laden had an iPhone?

What if police got that phone and couldn’t crack it?

New Androids will also encrypt data by default

New Androids will also encrypt data by default

The move is the latest in a broad shift by U.S. tech firms to make their products more resistant to government snooping in the aftermath of revelations of NSA spying by Edward Snowden.

Apple will no longer unlock most iPhones, iPads for police

Apple will no longer unlock most iPhones, iPads for police

New operating system makes it impossible for company to comply with requests for data on devices.

Tech firm tries to pull back curtain on surveillance efforts

Tech firm tries to pull back curtain on surveillance efforts

Security experts are attempting to find ways to uncover equipment capable of spoofing cellphone towers.

You think you’ve got bills? Government could have fined Yahoo trillions of dollars

You think you’ve got bills? Government could have fined Yahoo trillions of dollars

Proposed Justice Department fines could have bankrupted the company within a few months.

U.S. threatened massive fine to force Yahoo to release data

U.S. threatened massive fine to force Yahoo to release data

Unsealed documents detail firm’s unsuccessful bid to keep personal information away from feds.

Post names Frederick J. Ryan Jr. as new publisher

Post names Frederick J. Ryan Jr. as new publisher

Former Reagan administration official was part of the founding leadership team of Politico.

Appeals court hears arguments on NSA call-data collection

The ACLU argued before a panel in New York that the bulk collection of phone records is unconstitutional.

U.S. firm helped spyware industry build a digital weapon

U.S. firm helped spyware industry build a digital weapon

Systems can allow foreign security services to slip malicious code into YouTube videos and Microsoft pages.

How your cat video addiction could be used to hack you

How your cat video addiction could be used to hack you

Tools capable of network injection exploits are being sold by commercial surveillance companies, a new report claims.

DHS contractor suffers major computer breach

DHS contractor suffers major computer breach

Officials say employees’ personal information likely taken as FBI launches investigation.

Judge orders Microsoft to turn over data held overseas

Judge orders Microsoft to turn over data held overseas

Federal ruling says that Microsoft must comply with a warrant demanding data held in Ireland.

Authorities struggle as new communication services grow

Industry says law enforcement already has the tools it needs as companies resist wiretap demands.

Privacy watchdog’s next target: the least-known but biggest aspect of NSA surveillance

Privacy watchdog’s next target: the least-known but biggest aspect of NSA surveillance

An independent agency is expected to announce Wednesday that it will turn its focus to signals intelligence collection under Executive Order 12333.

How 160,000 conversations led to our latest NSA story

How 160,000 conversations led to our latest NSA story

DEBRIEF | A look at how Post reporters sorted through chats, e-mails and photos intercepted by the NSA, and the legal and ethical dilemmas they faced.

Germany expels CIA station chief over spying allegations

Germany expels CIA station chief over spying allegations

The action represents a public expression of anger over reported cases of U.S. spying in the country.

U.S. probes Chinese hack aimed at federal workers’ data

U.S. probes Chinese hack aimed at federal workers’ data

Officials say no personal data appears to have been taken; information was encrypted.

U.S. reportedly monitored prominent Muslims’ e-mails

U.S. reportedly monitored prominent Muslims’ e-mails

Government rejects allegation that anyone was under surveillance because of beliefs.

German investigation of U.S. espionage widens

German investigation of U.S. espionage widens

Obama administration officials fear the probe could be part of a broader crackdown on U.S. spying.

Senate intelligence panel advances cybersecurity bill

Lawmakers cheer the 12-3 vote, but civil liberties advocates say the proposed legislation fails to adequately shield Americans’ privacy.

Non-targets far outnumber targets in NSA data collection

Non-targets far outnumber targets in NSA data collection

Files provided by Edward Snowden show the extent ordinary Web users get caught in the net of surveillance.

CIA employee says his push for disclosure ‘destroyed my entire career’

CIA employee says his push for disclosure ‘destroyed my entire career’

Jeffrey Scudder’s FOIA request led to accusations, an FBI raid and his departure from the agency.

Panel: NSA program targeting foreigners is lawful

Panel: NSA program targeting foreigners is lawful

The independent board had ruled against a different agency surveillance program in January.

NSA given broad leeway on surveillance, documents show

NSA given broad leeway on surveillance, documents show

Court provided agency with wider authority than previously known to intercept global communications.

U.S. releases data on sensitive surveillance programs

The first “transparency report” shows that nearly 90,000 foreign persons or organizations were targeted in 2013.

Cellphone ruling hints at broader curbs on surveillance

Cellphone ruling hints at broader curbs on surveillance

‘Big, forceful, bold decision’ should leave the FBI worried, one lawyer says.

House votes to curb NSA ‘backdoor’ searches

The amendment to the defense spending bill faces uncertainty in the Senate.

House votes to rein in NSA ‘back door’ surveillance powers

House votes to rein in NSA ‘back door’ surveillance powers

House passes funding bill amendment blocking funds for some spying activities.

U.S. officials scrambled for a way to apprehend Snowden

U.S. officials scrambled for a way to apprehend Snowden

Meeting nearly daily, they had hoped the former NSA contractor would slip up. He didn’t.

Apple praised for plan to thwart tracking of customers

Apple praised for plan to thwart tracking of customers

In a software update, the tech giant plans to block widespread system that follows shoppers and their habits.

Microsoft fights U.S. search warrant for data held overseas

The government wants e-mails tied to a drug-trafficking probe; the company says the request isn’t justified by law.

Vodafone exposes government wiretapping

Vodafone exposes government wiretapping

World’s second-largest cellular carrier says many countries have unfettered access to private communications.

New NSA chief seeks to reassure public on surveillance

Adm. Michael S. Rogers says the agency does not unilaterally spy on Americans.

U.S. officials, Snowden clash over e-mail records

U.S. officials, Snowden clash over e-mail records

NSA, former intelligence contractor try to shape debate over whether he tried to blow whistle before leak.

Brokers use ‘billions’ of data points to profile Americans, report says

Brokers use ‘billions’ of data points to profile Americans, report says

Data brokers develop profiles using sources such as social media and purchase histories, the FTC says.

House approves bill to end NSA collection of phone data

House approves bill to end NSA collection of phone data

USA Freedom Act was scaled back to meet concerns of intelligence and law enforcement officials.

Indictment of Chinese hackers part of broad U.S. strategy

Indictment of Chinese hackers part of broad U.S. strategy

Administration wants to hold China accountable for growing campaign of commercial cyberspying, officials say.

U.S. charges Chinese military members with cyberspying

U.S. charges Chinese military members with cyberspying

The indictment follows vows to hold other nations accountable for theft of U.S. companies’ intellectual property.

U.S. revealed secret legal basis for NSA program to Sprint

New documents, interviews indicate intelligence community shared details to ward off court challenge.

Bill to reform NSA set to move to House floor

Bill to reform NSA set to move to House floor

USA Freedom Act would end the bulk collection of Americans’ phone records.

House lawmakers close to deal on surveillance legislation

The bipartisan compromise bill would end the mass collection of Americans’ phone data by the NSA, aides said.

Defying government, tech firms alert users to data demands

Defying government, tech firms alert users to data demands

Prosecutors decry increasingly tough stand by Apple, Google, Facebook and others on secret data searches

Top 2 officials at Defense Intelligence Agency will retire

Top 2 officials at Defense Intelligence Agency will retire

The tenure of the director, Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, has been marked by significant turbulence.

Low-level federal judges raising the bar for digital evidence

Low-level federal judges raising the bar for digital evidence

Some magistrate judges say sweeping requests violate constitutional protections.

Snowden to Putin: Does Russia spy on its citizens?

Snowden to Putin: Does Russia spy on its citizens?

The fugitive former NSA contractor turned up via video link on the Russian leader’s call-in program.

The nature of the Internet, seen through a bug

The nature of the Internet, seen through a bug

The “Heartbleed” Web security flaw revealed this week was a product of the online world’s makeshift design.

Defense chief: U.S. cyberwarfare force to grow significantly

Defense chief: U.S. cyberwarfare force to grow significantly

Chuck Hagel says that despite force’s growth, U.S. will practice “restraint” in any operations outside the U.S.

White House pushes Congress on NSA data collection

White House pushes Congress on NSA data collection

The administration seeks legislation that would end the bulk gathering of Americans’ phone records.

NSA collection of Americans’ phone records likely to end

NSA collection of Americans’ phone records likely to end

DEBRIEF | An emerging political consensus supports an end to government holding phone records.

NSA targeted Chinese tech giant’s network, document says

NSA targeted Chinese tech  giant’s network, document says

The agency wanted to see if Huawei was spying on the U.S. for Beijing, according to the Snowden leak.

Tech executives discuss online privacy with Obama

Tech executives discuss online privacy with Obama

Six executives met with the president and his aides to talk about how spying affects their businesses.

NSA reaches ‘into the past’ to retrieve, replay phone calls

NSA reaches ‘into the past’ to retrieve, replay phone calls

The surveillance system is capable of recording “100 percent” of calls in at least one foreign country.

Alexander: Make Cyber Command a full, unified command

Outgoing head of both NSA and Cyber Command tells a House panel that his cyberwarfare organization should be elevated to a full command akin to Central Command over the next year.

Senior House Democrat: End NSA bulk data collection

Senior House Democrat: End NSA bulk data collection

Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-Md.) is trying to craft a bipartisan plan to end NSA collection of citizens’ call data.

Google is encrypting search worldwide. That’s bad for the NSA and China

Google is encrypting search worldwide. That’s bad for the NSA and China

Google is encrypting its search results worldwide. Here’s how they will look to Chinese censors: “1fe7897ad064478fc...”

NSA nominee backs end to NSA collection of phone data

NSA nominee backs end to NSA collection of phone data

But Adm. Michael Rogers said he wants some form of the record collection to be preserved.

Snowden: Mass surveillance is backfiring on U.S.

Snowden: Mass surveillance is backfiring on U.S.

The NSA leaker says that “bulk collection” means fewer resources for targeted scrutiny of actual suspects.

British spy agency kept images of Yahoo webcam chats

British spy agency kept images of Yahoo webcam chats

The program was code-named Optic Nerve, according to documents from Edward Snowden.

NSA director calls for stronger cyber-deterrent strategy

NSA director calls for stronger cyber-deterrent strategy

Gen. Keith Alexander says the U.S. shouldn’t wait until an ‘okay, that was unacceptable’ situation occurs.

Review

The man behind the NSA leaks

The man behind the NSA leaks

Luke Harding captures the drama of Edward Snowden’s deeds.

NSA employee implicated in Snowden probe has resigned

NSA employee implicated in Snowden probe has resigned

Agency memo says unidentified individual unwittingly aided leak by providing log-in credentials.

Reforms won’t hamper NSA’s efforts, official says

Reforms won’t hamper NSA’s efforts, official says

Obama administration reforms are not “putting us out of business,” NSA’s deputy director says.

Al-Qaeda expulsion prompts U.S. debate

Al-Qaeda expulsion prompts U.S. debate

The Obama administration is exploring whether a law regarding U.S. attacks still applies to the group.

NSA collects less than 30 percent of phone data

NSA collects less than 30 percent of phone data

The amount of phone records gathered has plummeted as cellphone use has increased.

NSA nominee likely to face tough questions on surveillance

NSA nominee likely to face tough questions on surveillance

Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers would take on the challenge of mending the NSA’s image.

Head of intelligence calls on Snowden to return documents

Head of intelligence calls on Snowden to return documents

James Clapper offers blistering remarks at an annual hearing on the most significant U.S. security threats.

U.S. relaxes gag order on data requests to companies

Firms will be permitted for first time to publicize how often they must furnish customer information to government.

Democrat proves an obstacle to Obama’s spy-agency plans

Sen. Dianne Feinstein has opposed the president’s efforts to revamp U.S. drone and data-collection programs.

Snowden denies stealing passwords to access secret files

Snowden denies stealing passwords to access secret files

In online question-and-answer session, he says U.S. law precludes him from returning home.

Reforming phone record collection faces challenges

Reforming phone record collection faces challenges

Technical, logistical and political problems confront Obama’s goal of revising the controversial program.

Obama’s NSA restrictions rely on thin definition of ‘spying’

Obama’s NSA restrictions rely on thin definition of ‘spying’

President does not include ingestion of tens of trillions of records about phone calls, e-mails and locations.

‘We must maintain the trust of the American people’

‘We must maintain the trust of the American people’

President ends eavesdropping on friendly foreign governments, changes system of data collection.

Obama to deliver much-anticipated speech on NSA surveillance

President is expected to announce some new limits on the National Security Agency.

Man convicted in terror case seeks evidence from warrantless spying

Man convicted in terror case seeks evidence from warrantless spying

Oregon man guilty of Christmas tree bombing plot opens door for possible constitutional challenge to NSA program.

Tech firms: We don’t want to keep Internet metadata for the government

Tech firms: We don’t want to keep Internet metadata for the government

The tech firms are urging the White House and Congress to ban the bulk collection of Internet communications.

A hard-edged defender of spy agencies

A hard-edged defender of spy agencies

Attorney Robert S. Litt has led an unusually high-profile response to the Snowden leaks.

Obama, lawmakers discuss ending NSA phone program

Obama, lawmakers discuss ending NSA phone program

Review finds that the program “was not essential” to preventing terrorist attacks.

NSA exploring alternatives to holding phone-log database

NSA exploring alternatives to holding phone-log database

The agency is exploring how to relinquish control of the records while still being able to exploit them.

NSA seeks quantum computer that could crack most codes

Documents provided by Snowden show race for a machine light-years ahead of those using zeroes and ones.

Who, if anyone, should store phone data for the NSA?

Who, if anyone, should store phone data for the NSA?

Alternatives to NSA storing massing amounts of records are facing resistance on multiple fronts.

Snowden, in interview, says his mission’s accomplished

Snowden, in interview, says his mission’s accomplished

His leaks have fundamentally altered the U.S. government’s relationship with its citizens, the rest of the world.

U.S. reasserts need to keep domestic surveillance secret

U.S. reasserts need to keep domestic surveillance secret

Government defends NSA’s program to intercept phone and e-mail communications without a warrant.

Uneasy about surveillance, but also comforted by it

Uneasy about surveillance, but also comforted by it

POST POLL | While government and business data tracking is a concern, many Americans use snooping tools.

Obama promises review of NSA spying, possible reforms

Obama promises review of NSA spying, possible reforms

In year-end press conference, president also faces questions on continuing gridlock in Washington.

NSA, British spy agency targeted many foreign interests

The office of an Israeli prime minister, an E.U. official and the heads of aid groups were targets, documents say.

Officials’ defenses of NSA program may be unraveling

Officials’ defenses of NSA program may be unraveling

A court ruling and an expert panel cast doubt on phone effort’s legality and value in deterring terrorism.

Panel urges new curbs on surveillance by U.S.

Panel urges new curbs on surveillance by U.S.

Among the recommendations are an end to NSA collection and storage of Americans’ phone records.

Tech executives to Obama: Curb NSA spying programs

Tech executives to Obama: Curb NSA spying programs

In a meeting at the White House, they warned that a consumer backlash could harm the broader economy.

Judge: NSA phone data collecting likely unconstitutional

Court grants request for a preliminary injunction on controversial program, but stays the action pending appeal.

NSA has cracked popular cellphone code

NSA has cracked popular cellphone code

The agency’s cracking of A5/1 gives it the means to decode potentially billions of calls and texts.

U.S. to maintain unified NSA, Cyber Command leadership

U.S. to maintain unified NSA, Cyber Command leadership

Critics say agencies needed separate heads to avoid undue concentration of power in single individual.

At Senate hearing, NSA director defends spying program

“We can’t go back to a pre-9/11 moment,” Gen. Keith Alexander tells the Judiciary Committee.

NSA uses Google cookies to pinpoint users to hack

NSA uses Google cookies to pinpoint users to hack

How the NSA piggybacks onto the tracking behaviors of commercial companies to enable exploitation and surveillance.

Tech companies unite to call for new limits on surveillance

Tech companies unite to call for new limits on surveillance

The firms, including Microsoft, Google and Facebook, say there is an “urgent need” for reform.

Agencies collected data on cellphone use in ‘tower dumps’

Agencies collected data on cellphone use in ‘tower dumps’

Law enforcement made more than 9,000 requests last year, a congressional inquiry has revealed.

NSA morale low after Snowden revelations, ex-officials say

NSA morale low after Snowden revelations, ex-officials say

They add that they are surprised President Obama has not visited the agency to show his support.

Microsoft to encrypt data in its services

Microsoft to encrypt data in its services

The tech giant moves to reassure customers it will protect them against government surveillance.

NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide

NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide

Snowden documents show agency is collecting billions of records on whereabouts of mobile devices.

Key officials urge NSA, Cyber Command leadership be split

National security adviser is expected to make a formal recommendation to President Obama soon.

Microsoft to ramp up encryption to guard against NSA

Microsoft to ramp up encryption to guard against NSA

The company is moving toward a new effort to protect its Internet traffic amid suspicions of government spying.

Did the NSA target Microsoft too?

Did the NSA target Microsoft too?

This e-mail suggests Microsoft may have been compromised by the same program used to access Google and Yahoo data.

Evidence of Microsoft’s vulnerability

Evidence of Microsoft’s vulnerability

These slides suggest NSA programs targeting Google and Yahoo also had Microsoft in their sights.

Director of national intelligence releasing documents

Director of national intelligence releasing documents

One appears to be the original court document authorizing the NSA to conduct communications sweeps.

FBI director sees cyberattacks emerging as a top threat

FBI director sees cyberattacks emerging as a top threat

James Comey testifies that the risk of a major terrorist attack has fallen but “is more dispersed geographically.”

U.S. mulls end to dual leadership at NSA, Cyber Command

Some officials argue a shift would help avoid an undue concentration of power in one individual.

Panel: U.S. spy agencies hampered by poor collaboration

Panel: U.S. spy agencies hampered by poor collaboration

Report says intelligence community has also struggled with developing defenses against emerging threats.

How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data

How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data

New documents reveal exactly how the Post was able to determine that the NSA was peeking inside the Google and Yahoo’s cloud network.

Privacy advocates oppose proposed surveillance measure

Concerns are expressed that Senate bill would validate NSA’s harvesting of telephone, e-mail records.

Senate bill would approve NSA program but try to curb it

Senate bill would approve NSA program but try to curb it

Measure passed by Intelligence Committee limits use of phone data but endorses its collection.

U.S. tries to deal with ‘blowback’

U.S. tries to deal with ‘blowback’

Disclosure of surveillance program on allies results in both diplomatic and intelligence service predicaments.

Tech companies urge lawmakers to reform NSA programs

Tech companies urge lawmakers to reform NSA programs

Letter from firms, including Google and Apple, calls for changes that would enhance privacy protections.

NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers

NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers

Agency positioned itself to collect from among millions of accounts, many belonging to Americans.

Graphic

How the NSA is infiltrating private networks

How the NSA is infiltrating private networks

The NSA, working with its British counterpart, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), secretly taps into the internal networks of Yahoo and Google, the two biggest Internet companies by overall data traffic. The operation intercepts information flowing between the enormous data centers that those companies maintain around the world. In general, Google and Yahoo use privately owned or leased lines to synchronize their data centers. This graphic shows how the NSA and GCHQ break into those internal networks, using Google’s as an example. Less is known about Yahoo’s networks, but the NSA operations are thought to be similar.

NSA chief: NATO allies shared phone records with agency

NSA chief: NATO allies shared phone records with agency

Keith Alexander says reports that NSA collected records of European citizens is “completely false.”

Dueling NSA bills set up a choice in Congress

Dueling NSA bills set up a choice in Congress

End the agency’s bulk collection of phone records or endorse it?

Officials alert foreign services about Snowden documents

Officials alert foreign services about Snowden documents

Documents contain material about operations that involve countries not publicly allied with the United States.

German leader calls Obama on alleged cellphone tapping

German leader calls Obama on alleged cellphone tapping

The allegations rocked Germany’s government and created a new diplomatic challenge for Obama.

Documents reveal NSA’s role in drone program

Documents reveal NSA’s role in drone program

EXCLUSIVE | The drone campaign in Pakistan — often depicted as the CIA’s exclusive domain — relies heavily on the NSA’s ability to collect enormous quantities of e-mail, phone calls and other fragments of intelligence.

NSA collects millions of e-mail address books globally

The contact information is intercepted as it moves across global data links. Many lists belong to Americans.

Push underway to declassify FISC document

Push underway to declassify FISC document

Document provided legal foundation for NSA’s collection of all Americans’ phone records.

Try as it might, anti-surveillance group can’t avoid D.C.

Try as it might, anti-surveillance group can’t avoid D.C.

Electronic Frontier Foundation doesn’t want to play political games, but how can it not?

After leaks, NSA struggles for trust

After leaks, NSA struggles for trust

Agency is trying to regain industry’s faith in order to work cooperatively against cyber-threats.

Dual-leadership role at NSA, Cyber Command stirs debate

Dual-leadership role at NSA, Cyber Command stirs debate

Gen. Keith Alexander is building up forces to fend off cyberattacks; some question the centralizing of power.

NSA report on Tor network

NSA report on Tor network

This 2006 research paper lays out the technical features of Tor and proposes a number of attacks.

NSA files show campaign against Tor encrypted network

NSA files show campaign against Tor encrypted network

Agency has worked for years to unmask users on one the world’s most popular encryption networks.

NSA ran test program on Americans’ cellphone locations

NSA ran test program on Americans’ cellphone locations

Director says two-year effort was discontinued and that data were not used for intelligence analysis.

NSA said to study some Americans’ social connections

NSA said to study some Americans’ social connections

Seeking foreign intelligence, the agency has used e-mail and phone call data to build extensive graphs.

U.S. officials dodge questions on scope of surveillance

U.S. officials dodge questions on scope of surveillance

At Senate hearing, Feinstein adds that surveillance reforms could boost trust and transparency.

NSA chief defends collecting Americans’ phone records

NSA chief defends collecting Americans’ phone records

Gen. Keith Alexander says database can help “connect the dots” between domestic and foreign threats.

Senator calls for end to NSA bulk phone records collection

Senator calls for end to NSA bulk phone records collection

Congress to consider NSA surveillance reforms.

Declassified court documents highlight NSA violations

Declassified court documents highlight NSA violations

The agency searched a massive database of phone-call records in violation of privacy rules.

Obama administration had restrictions on NSA reversed

Obama administration had restrictions on NSA reversed

Move allowed agency to search for Americans’ communications.

Google races to encrypt data amid backlash over NSA spying

Google races to encrypt data amid backlash over NSA spying

EXCLUSIVE | The Web giant accelerates a program to make it harder for outsiders to intercept its user information.

NSA has led effort to crack Internet encryption technology

NSA has led effort to crack Internet encryption technology

Agency has worked with its British counterpart to break codes that protect data sent across Web.

Al-Qaeda seeks ways to fight U.S. drones, documents say

Al-Qaeda seeks ways to fight U.S. drones, documents say

Cells of engineers try to find ways to exploit technological vulnerabilities of the deadly weapons system.

Secret intelligence files show growing distrust of Pakistan

Secret intelligence files show growing distrust of Pakistan

Stark assessments of the purported ally contained in the documents belie U.S. officials’ public statements.

Millions spent to hunt for insider threats

Millions spent to hunt for insider threats

The U.S. suspects that people with ties to al-Qaeda or other groups have tried to get jobs, a document shows.

Bounds of government secrecy shifting in wake of leaks

Bounds of government secrecy shifting in wake of leaks

The U.S. will release an annual report about its surveillance orders, in addition to other recent disclosures.

U.S. intelligence-gathering giant revealed by ‘black budget’

U.S. intelligence-gathering giant revealed by ‘black budget’

Despite huge funding, agencies are unable to provide critical data on a range of national security threats.

NSA pays firms for access to networks

NSA pays firms for access to networks

Documents offer a look at program expected to cost $278 million in the current fiscal year.

To hunt bin Laden, satellites watched over Abbottabad

To hunt bin Laden, satellites watched over Abbottabad

Satellites aimed dozens of receivers over Pakistan to collect intelligence as the mission unfolded.

NSA gathered tens of thousands of e-mails between Americans

A new document reveals the extent of the collection before the FISA court forced the agency to revise its tactics.

New demands for reform of NSA spy programs

New demands for reform of NSA spy programs

Some lawmakers called for greater transparency in the surveillance operations of the National Security Agency.

NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds

NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds

Agency also has overstepped legal authority since Congress gave it broad new power in 2008.

Newly declassified documents on phone records program released

Newly declassified documents on phone records program released

Obama administration faces growing political skepticism about the counterterrorism program.

Panama releases ex-CIA operative

Robert Seldon Lady was freed two days after he was detained by Panama authorities, officials said.

Ex-CIA operative convicted in kidnapping is detained

Case in 2005 drew attention to agency practice known as “extraordinary rendition.”

For NSA chief, terrorist threat drives a passion to ‘collect it all’

For NSA chief, terrorist threat drives a passion to ‘collect it all’

Aggressive methods fuel debate over divide between privacy, security.

Officials: NSA’s Snowden review focuses on China espionage files

Officials: NSA’s Snowden review focuses on China espionage files

Intelligence officials fear leaker Edward Snowden has information on spying on China, other critical targets.

Suspicion of U.S. international manhunt follows Snowden case

Suspicion of U.S. international manhunt follows Snowden case

The grounding of the Bolivian president’s plane feeds talk that U.S. officials are calling the shots.

U.S. seeks to calm Europe over surveillance

As leaders of France and Germany react to reports of NSA monitoring, Obama defends agency’s methods.

Misinformation on NSA programs includes statements by officials

Misinformation on NSA programs includes statements by officials

Inadvertent missteps, legal parsing blamed for errors and false assertions about classified programs.

Surveillance-court judges upset at portrayal of collaboration with U.S.

Surveillance-court judges upset at portrayal of collaboration with U.S.

Judges at the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court feel report distorts their role in data-collection approvals.

NSA worked closely with private sector after Sept. 11, 2001, attacks

NSA worked closely with private sector after Sept. 11, 2001, attacks

Surveillance program under president’s authority collected content, metadata from Americans.

NSA head acknowledges flaws with fact sheet on surveillance programs

The agency removed the four-page document after concerns about its accuracy were raised by lawmakers.

U.S. worried about security of files Snowden is thought to have

U.S. worried about security of files Snowden is thought to have

The ability of the contractor-turned-fugitive to evade arrest is raising the new concerns.

Leahy proposes new oversight of surveillance programs

Leahy proposes new oversight of surveillance programs

The bill seeks to raise the legal bar the government must meet before obtaining call detail records.

Officials: Surveillance programs foiled more than 50 terrorist plots

Officials: Surveillance programs foiled more than 50 terrorist plots

The NSA’s head and others defended the effectiveness and oversight of leaked surveillance programs.

Snowden defends his NSA leaks in live chat on Guardian Web site

Snowden defends his NSA leaks in live chat on Guardian Web site

He claims he exposed only hacking of civilian targets, not “legitimate military targets.”

The keystones of U.S. surveillance

Two of the NSA’s four main collection programs target revealing metadata from Web, phone communications.

U.S. fears NSA leaker has more classified files

U.S. fears NSA leaker has more classified files

Administration officials defend surveillance programs amid calls for additional transparency.

NSA director says dozens of attacks stopped by surveillance programs

NSA director says dozens of attacks stopped by surveillance programs

In an interview with a Hong Kong paper, Edward Snowden asserts the U.S. has mounted hacking operations against hundreds of Chinese targets since 2009.

NSA director says surveillance thwarted ‘dozens’ of attacks

NSA director says surveillance thwarted ‘dozens’ of attacks

Gen. Keith Alexander says agency will make public records showing success of secret programs

Tech companies urge U.S. to be open on national security probes

Tech companies urge U.S. to be open on national security probes

Google, Facebook, Microsoft and others want U.S. officials to ease secrecy rules on data collection.

The low-level, tech-savvy leaker. Anomaly or growing problem?

The low-level, tech-savvy leaker. Anomaly or growing problem?

The Edward Snowden and Bradley Manning cases represent back-to-back blows for U.S. intelligence.

U.S. disrupts al-Qaeda’s online magazine

The debate tips toward taking action when U.S. officials believe Inspire promotes an imminent threat.

Investigators looking at how contractor gained access at NSA

Investigators looking at how contractor gained access at NSA

Edward Snowden leaked documents on distinctly different operations.

Who is Edward Snowden?

Who is Edward Snowden?

The NSA contractor “wanted to expose the “surveillance state.”

Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks

Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks

The leaker, at times eloquent and at times jittery, took the code name “Verax,” or “truth teller” in Latin.

From obscurity to notoriety, Snowden took an unusual path

From obscurity to notoriety, Snowden took an unusual path

Daniel Ellsberg praises NSA leaker while others condemn him for revealing surveillance programs.

Man who leaked NSA secrets reveals himself

Man who leaked NSA secrets reveals himself

Edward Snowden, a 29-year-old Booz Allen Hamilton employee, says he’s done nothing wrong in revealing government surveillance programs.