The National Security Agency has been forced to respond to unprecedented disclosures about its surveillance programs. Those programs have been assailed as a violation of privacy rights by critics and defended as critical to U.S. national security by intelligence officials.
See the documents published by The Post
FULL COVERAGE: NSA SECRETS
Industry says law enforcement already has the tools it needs as companies resist wiretap demands.
An independent agency is expected to announce Wednesday that it will turn its focus to signals intelligence collection under Executive Order 12333.
DEBRIEF | A look at how Post reporters sorted through chats, e-mails and photos intercepted by the NSA, and the legal and ethical dilemmas they faced.
The action represents a public expression of anger over reported cases of U.S. spying in the country.
Officials say no personal data appears to have been taken; information was encrypted.
Government rejects allegation that anyone was under surveillance because of beliefs.
Obama administration officials fear the probe could be part of a broader crackdown on U.S. spying.
Lawmakers cheer the 12-3 vote, but civil liberties advocates say the proposed legislation fails to adequately shield Americans’ privacy.
Files provided by Edward Snowden show the extent ordinary Web users get caught in the net of surveillance.
Jeffrey Scudder’s FOIA request led to accusations, an FBI raid and his departure from the agency.
The independent board had ruled against a different agency surveillance program in January.
Court provided agency with wider authority than previously known to intercept global communications.
The first “transparency report” shows that nearly 90,000 foreign persons or organizations were targeted in 2013.
‘Big, forceful, bold decision’ should leave the FBI worried, one lawyer says.
The amendment to the defense spending bill faces uncertainty in the Senate.
House passes funding bill amendment blocking funds for some spying activities.
Meeting nearly daily, they had hoped the former NSA contractor would slip up. He didn’t.
In a software update, the tech giant plans to block widespread system that follows shoppers and their habits.
The government wants e-mails tied to a drug-trafficking probe; the company says the request isn’t justified by law.
World’s second-largest cellular carrier says many countries have unfettered access to private communications.
Adm. Michael S. Rogers says the agency does not unilaterally spy on Americans.
NSA, former intelligence contractor try to shape debate over whether he tried to blow whistle before leak.
Data brokers develop profiles using sources such as social media and purchase histories, the FTC says.
USA Freedom Act was scaled back to meet concerns of intelligence and law enforcement officials.
Administration wants to hold China accountable for growing campaign of commercial cyberspying, officials say.
The indictment follows vows to hold other nations accountable for theft of U.S. companies’ intellectual property.
New documents, interviews indicate intelligence community shared details to ward off court challenge.
USA Freedom Act would end the bulk collection of Americans’ phone records.
The bipartisan compromise bill would end the mass collection of Americans’ phone data by the NSA, aides said.
Prosecutors decry increasingly tough stand by Apple, Google, Facebook and others on secret data searches
The tenure of the director, Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, has been marked by significant turbulence.
Some magistrate judges say sweeping requests violate constitutional protections.
The fugitive former NSA contractor turned up via video link on the Russian leader’s call-in program.
The “Heartbleed” Web security flaw revealed this week was a product of the online world’s makeshift design.
Chuck Hagel says that despite force’s growth, U.S. will practice “restraint” in any operations outside the U.S.
The administration seeks legislation that would end the bulk gathering of Americans’ phone records.
DEBRIEF | An emerging political consensus supports an end to government holding phone records.
The agency wanted to see if Huawei was spying on the U.S. for Beijing, according to the Snowden leak.
Six executives met with the president and his aides to talk about how spying affects their businesses.
The surveillance system is capable of recording “100 percent” of calls in at least one foreign country.
Outgoing head of both NSA and Cyber Command tells a House panel that his cyberwarfare organization should be elevated to a full command akin to Central Command over the next year.
Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-Md.) is trying to craft a bipartisan plan to end NSA collection of citizens’ call data.
Google is encrypting its search results worldwide. Here’s how they will look to Chinese censors: “1fe7897ad064478fc...”
But Adm. Michael Rogers said he wants some form of the record collection to be preserved.
The NSA leaker says that “bulk collection” means fewer resources for targeted scrutiny of actual suspects.
The program was code-named Optic Nerve, according to documents from Edward Snowden.
Gen. Keith Alexander says the U.S. shouldn’t wait until an ‘okay, that was unacceptable’ situation occurs.
Luke Harding captures the drama of Edward Snowden’s deeds.
Agency memo says unidentified individual unwittingly aided leak by providing log-in credentials.
Obama administration reforms are not “putting us out of business,” NSA’s deputy director says.
The Obama administration is exploring whether a law regarding U.S. attacks still applies to the group.
The amount of phone records gathered has plummeted as cellphone use has increased.
Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers would take on the challenge of mending the NSA’s image.
James Clapper offers blistering remarks at an annual hearing on the most significant U.S. security threats.
Firms will be permitted for first time to publicize how often they must furnish customer information to government.
Sen. Dianne Feinstein has opposed the president’s efforts to revamp U.S. drone and data-collection programs.
In online question-and-answer session, he says U.S. law precludes him from returning home.
Technical, logistical and political problems confront Obama’s goal of revising the controversial program.
President does not include ingestion of tens of trillions of records about phone calls, e-mails and locations.
President ends eavesdropping on friendly foreign governments, changes system of data collection.
President is expected to announce some new limits on the National Security Agency.
Oregon man guilty of Christmas tree bombing plot opens door for possible constitutional challenge to NSA program.
The tech firms are urging the White House and Congress to ban the bulk collection of Internet communications.
Attorney Robert S. Litt has led an unusually high-profile response to the Snowden leaks.
Review finds that the program “was not essential” to preventing terrorist attacks.
The agency is exploring how to relinquish control of the records while still being able to exploit them.
Documents provided by Snowden show race for a machine light-years ahead of those using zeroes and ones.
Alternatives to NSA storing massing amounts of records are facing resistance on multiple fronts.
His leaks have fundamentally altered the U.S. government’s relationship with its citizens, the rest of the world.
Government defends NSA’s program to intercept phone and e-mail communications without a warrant.
POST POLL | While government and business data tracking is a concern, many Americans use snooping tools.
In year-end press conference, president also faces questions on continuing gridlock in Washington.
The office of an Israeli prime minister, an E.U. official and the heads of aid groups were targets, documents say.
A court ruling and an expert panel cast doubt on phone effort’s legality and value in deterring terrorism.
Among the recommendations are an end to NSA collection and storage of Americans’ phone records.
In a meeting at the White House, they warned that a consumer backlash could harm the broader economy.
Court grants request for a preliminary injunction on controversial program, but stays the action pending appeal.
The agency’s cracking of A5/1 gives it the means to decode potentially billions of calls and texts.
Critics say agencies needed separate heads to avoid undue concentration of power in single individual.
“We can’t go back to a pre-9/11 moment,” Gen. Keith Alexander tells the Judiciary Committee.
How the NSA piggybacks onto the tracking behaviors of commercial companies to enable exploitation and surveillance.
The firms, including Microsoft, Google and Facebook, say there is an “urgent need” for reform.
Law enforcement made more than 9,000 requests last year, a congressional inquiry has revealed.
They add that they are surprised President Obama has not visited the agency to show his support.
The tech giant moves to reassure customers it will protect them against government surveillance.
Snowden documents show agency is collecting billions of records on whereabouts of mobile devices.
National security adviser is expected to make a formal recommendation to President Obama soon.
The company is moving toward a new effort to protect its Internet traffic amid suspicions of government spying.
This e-mail suggests Microsoft may have been compromised by the same program used to access Google and Yahoo data.
These slides suggest NSA programs targeting Google and Yahoo also had Microsoft in their sights.
One appears to be the original court document authorizing the NSA to conduct communications sweeps.
James Comey testifies that the risk of a major terrorist attack has fallen but “is more dispersed geographically.”
Some officials argue a shift would help avoid an undue concentration of power in one individual.
Report says intelligence community has also struggled with developing defenses against emerging threats.
New documents reveal exactly how the Post was able to determine that the NSA was peeking inside the Google and Yahoo’s cloud network.
Concerns are expressed that Senate bill would validate NSA’s harvesting of telephone, e-mail records.
Measure passed by Intelligence Committee limits use of phone data but endorses its collection.
Disclosure of surveillance program on allies results in both diplomatic and intelligence service predicaments.
Letter from firms, including Google and Apple, calls for changes that would enhance privacy protections.
Agency positioned itself to collect from among millions of accounts, many belonging to Americans.
The NSA, working with its British counterpart, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), secretly taps into the internal networks of Yahoo and Google, the two biggest Internet companies by overall data traffic. The operation intercepts information flowing between the enormous data centers that those companies maintain around the world. In general, Google and Yahoo use privately owned or leased lines to synchronize their data centers. This graphic shows how the NSA and GCHQ break into those internal networks, using Google’s as an example. Less is known about Yahoo’s networks, but the NSA operations are thought to be similar.
Keith Alexander says reports that NSA collected records of European citizens is “completely false.”
End the agency’s bulk collection of phone records or endorse it?
Documents contain material about operations that involve countries not publicly allied with the United States.
The allegations rocked Germany’s government and created a new diplomatic challenge for Obama.
EXCLUSIVE | The drone campaign in Pakistan — often depicted as the CIA’s exclusive domain — relies heavily on the NSA’s ability to collect enormous quantities of e-mail, phone calls and other fragments of intelligence.
The contact information is intercepted as it moves across global data links. Many lists belong to Americans.
Document provided legal foundation for NSA’s collection of all Americans’ phone records.
Electronic Frontier Foundation doesn’t want to play political games, but how can it not?
Agency is trying to regain industry’s faith in order to work cooperatively against cyber-threats.
Gen. Keith Alexander is building up forces to fend off cyberattacks; some question the centralizing of power.
This 2006 research paper lays out the technical features of Tor and proposes a number of attacks.
Agency has worked for years to unmask users on one the world’s most popular encryption networks.
Director says two-year effort was discontinued and that data were not used for intelligence analysis.
Seeking foreign intelligence, the agency has used e-mail and phone call data to build extensive graphs.
At Senate hearing, Feinstein adds that surveillance reforms could boost trust and transparency.
Gen. Keith Alexander says database can help “connect the dots” between domestic and foreign threats.
Congress to consider NSA surveillance reforms.
The agency searched a massive database of phone-call records in violation of privacy rules.
Move allowed agency to search for Americans’ communications.
EXCLUSIVE | The Web giant accelerates a program to make it harder for outsiders to intercept its user information.
Agency has worked with its British counterpart to break codes that protect data sent across Web.
Cells of engineers try to find ways to exploit technological vulnerabilities of the deadly weapons system.
Stark assessments of the purported ally contained in the documents belie U.S. officials’ public statements.
The U.S. suspects that people with ties to al-Qaeda or other groups have tried to get jobs, a document shows.
The U.S. will release an annual report about its surveillance orders, in addition to other recent disclosures.
Despite huge funding, agencies are unable to provide critical data on a range of national security threats.
Documents offer a look at program expected to cost $278 million in the current fiscal year.
Satellites aimed dozens of receivers over Pakistan to collect intelligence as the mission unfolded.
A new document reveals the extent of the collection before the FISA court forced the agency to revise its tactics.
Some lawmakers called for greater transparency in the surveillance operations of the National Security Agency.
Agency also has overstepped legal authority since Congress gave it broad new power in 2008.
Obama administration faces growing political skepticism about the counterterrorism program.
Robert Seldon Lady was freed two days after he was detained by Panama authorities, officials said.
Case in 2005 drew attention to agency practice known as “extraordinary rendition.”
Aggressive methods fuel debate over divide between privacy, security.
Intelligence officials fear leaker Edward Snowden has information on spying on China, other critical targets.
The grounding of the Bolivian president’s plane feeds talk that U.S. officials are calling the shots.
As leaders of France and Germany react to reports of NSA monitoring, Obama defends agency’s methods.
Inadvertent missteps, legal parsing blamed for errors and false assertions about classified programs.
Judges at the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court feel report distorts their role in data-collection approvals.
Surveillance program under president’s authority collected content, metadata from Americans.
The agency removed the four-page document after concerns about its accuracy were raised by lawmakers.
The ability of the contractor-turned-fugitive to evade arrest is raising the new concerns.
The bill seeks to raise the legal bar the government must meet before obtaining call detail records.
The NSA’s head and others defended the effectiveness and oversight of leaked surveillance programs.
He claims he exposed only hacking of civilian targets, not “legitimate military targets.”
Two of the NSA’s four main collection programs target revealing metadata from Web, phone communications.
Administration officials defend surveillance programs amid calls for additional transparency.
In an interview with a Hong Kong paper, Edward Snowden asserts the U.S. has mounted hacking operations against hundreds of Chinese targets since 2009.
Gen. Keith Alexander says agency will make public records showing success of secret programs
Google, Facebook, Microsoft and others want U.S. officials to ease secrecy rules on data collection.
The Edward Snowden and Bradley Manning cases represent back-to-back blows for U.S. intelligence.
The debate tips toward taking action when U.S. officials believe Inspire promotes an imminent threat.
Edward Snowden leaked documents on distinctly different operations.
The NSA contractor “wanted to expose the “surveillance state.”
The leaker, at times eloquent and at times jittery, took the code name “Verax,” or “truth teller” in Latin.
Daniel Ellsberg praises NSA leaker while others condemn him for revealing surveillance programs.
Edward Snowden, a 29-year-old Booz Allen Hamilton employee, says he’s done nothing wrong in revealing government surveillance programs.