The National Security Agency has been forced to respond to unprecedented disclosures about its surveillance programs. Those programs have been assailed as a violation of privacy rights by critics and defended as critical to U.S. national security by intelligence officials.
See the documents published by The Post
FULL COVERAGE: NSA SECRETS
Two 2014 hacks of Office of Personnel Management systems exposed details — from fingerprints to financial and health records — about federal employees, contractors and their friends and families.
Agency lawyers raised concerns that large amounts of Americans’ data could also be collected.
Two years after Snowden’s leaks, lawmakers have curtailed the government’s surveillance powers.
Republicans were unable to act before the deadline after Sen. Rand Paul foiled the extension.
The measure would have ended the NSA’s bulk collection of private phone records. Senators aren’t convening again until May 31, just hours before the legal authority for the existing program expires.
Senate remains divided on how to proceed with renewal of bulk phone-record collection program.
Without an extension from Congress by Friday, the agency will have to begin shuttering the program.
But the measure may stall because Senate Republican leaders want to renew the program.
Many say that extending the program through a “clean reauthorization” just became less compelling.
Congress never intended to authorize the massive collection of Americans’ call data, the judges said.
In a new book, former deputy director Michael Morell says the agency provided policymakers with assessments that proved mistaken.
Ashton Carter seeks to engage the tech industry and encourage innovation.
The move comes amid a bipartisan bid to scale back the government’s spying powers under the Patriot Act.
U.S. officials said the material was first stolen by North Korea as revenge for a movie about Kim Jong Un.
Government agencies promise confidentiality to tipsters. But experts say that’s impossible without encryption.
Privacy advocates say attempts to bypass encryption will create vulnerabilities for hackers to exploit.
Security hawks want to preserve the spy agency authorities as the deadline to act approaches.
NSA general counsel is latest in a string of government officials to take jobs in the private sector focused on cyber security.
The new emphasis would be part of a broad restructuring of the agency.
The operation allegedly targeted a Dutch company that makes SIM cards for wireless network providers.
Amid action, uncertainty lingers for NSA program as the authority for data collection is set to expire in June.
Justice Department acknowledges law enforcement swept up records from phone companies until 2013.
The proposal also includes measures that would help protect consumers and students.
Despite Germany’s vocal anger over NSA surveillance, it’s reluctantly enlisting U.S. help.
The spying can happen even on cellular networks using the most advanced encryption now available.
Backers of the measure said it sets a precedent for legislative action on an executive branch program.
Some companies are letting users know they haven’t received federal requests for data, frustrating officials.
Documents shed new light on a pivotal moment in U.S. surveillance history.
Lack of encryption on the retailer’s site allows governments to snoop on the reading habits of their citizens.
The surveillance technology is sold to Central Asian nations that smother basic rights, a watchdog group says.
GOP advocates for the agency and others appealed to renewed terrorist fears in move to block Senate debate.
The legislation would put limits on the so-called bulk collection of Americans’ records by the NSA.
The decision by the world’s most popular instant-messaging platform is part of a big shift in the tech industry.
The program reportedly gathers more data than the controversial, land-based StingRay initiative.
Legislation would end the National Security Agency’s bulk collection of records about Americans’ phone calls.
Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper won the release of Matthew Miller and Kenneth Bae.
‘Operation Onymous’ targeted illicit trade but has raised alarm among advocates of online anonymity.
The Group, more skilled than Unit 61398, targets dissidents, industry, government agencies and journalists.
An upgrade of its system is slowing rolling out.
James Comey says Apple’s and Google’s new encryption efforts can help criminals elude the law.
The company said U.S. restrictions on speaking publicly about government data requests violate the First Amendment.
His remarks followed announcements from Apple and Google earlier this month of new smartphone encryption policies.
What if police got that phone and couldn’t crack it?
The move is the latest in a broad shift by U.S. tech firms to make their products more resistant to government snooping in the aftermath of revelations of NSA spying by Edward Snowden.
New operating system makes it impossible for company to comply with requests for data on devices.
Security experts are attempting to find ways to uncover equipment capable of spoofing cellphone towers.
Proposed Justice Department fines could have bankrupted the company within a few months.
Unsealed documents detail firm’s unsuccessful bid to keep personal information away from feds.
Former Reagan administration official was part of the founding leadership team of Politico.
The ACLU argued before a panel in New York that the bulk collection of phone records is unconstitutional.
Systems can allow foreign security services to slip malicious code into YouTube videos and Microsoft pages.
Tools capable of network injection exploits are being sold by commercial surveillance companies, a new report claims.
Officials say employees’ personal information likely taken as FBI launches investigation.
Federal ruling says that Microsoft must comply with a warrant demanding data held in Ireland.
Industry says law enforcement already has the tools it needs as companies resist wiretap demands.
An independent agency is expected to announce Wednesday that it will turn its focus to signals intelligence collection under Executive Order 12333.
DEBRIEF | A look at how Post reporters sorted through chats, e-mails and photos intercepted by the NSA, and the legal and ethical dilemmas they faced.
The action represents a public expression of anger over reported cases of U.S. spying in the country.
Officials say no personal data appears to have been taken; information was encrypted.
Government rejects allegation that anyone was under surveillance because of beliefs.
Obama administration officials fear the probe could be part of a broader crackdown on U.S. spying.
Lawmakers cheer the 12-3 vote, but civil liberties advocates say the proposed legislation fails to adequately shield Americans’ privacy.
Files provided by Edward Snowden show the extent ordinary Web users get caught in the net of surveillance.
Jeffrey Scudder’s FOIA request led to accusations, an FBI raid and his departure from the agency.
The independent board had ruled against a different agency surveillance program in January.
Court provided agency with wider authority than previously known to intercept global communications.
The first “transparency report” shows that nearly 90,000 foreign persons or organizations were targeted in 2013.
‘Big, forceful, bold decision’ should leave the FBI worried, one lawyer says.
The amendment to the defense spending bill faces uncertainty in the Senate.
House passes funding bill amendment blocking funds for some spying activities.
Meeting nearly daily, they had hoped the former NSA contractor would slip up. He didn’t.
In a software update, the tech giant plans to block widespread system that follows shoppers and their habits.
The government wants e-mails tied to a drug-trafficking probe; the company says the request isn’t justified by law.
World’s second-largest cellular carrier says many countries have unfettered access to private communications.
Adm. Michael S. Rogers says the agency does not unilaterally spy on Americans.
NSA, former intelligence contractor try to shape debate over whether he tried to blow whistle before leak.
Data brokers develop profiles using sources such as social media and purchase histories, the FTC says.
USA Freedom Act was scaled back to meet concerns of intelligence and law enforcement officials.
Administration wants to hold China accountable for growing campaign of commercial cyberspying, officials say.
The indictment follows vows to hold other nations accountable for theft of U.S. companies’ intellectual property.
New documents, interviews indicate intelligence community shared details to ward off court challenge.
USA Freedom Act would end the bulk collection of Americans’ phone records.
The bipartisan compromise bill would end the mass collection of Americans’ phone data by the NSA, aides said.
Prosecutors decry increasingly tough stand by Apple, Google, Facebook and others on secret data searches
The tenure of the director, Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, has been marked by significant turbulence.
Some magistrate judges say sweeping requests violate constitutional protections.
The fugitive former NSA contractor turned up via video link on the Russian leader’s call-in program.
The “Heartbleed” Web security flaw revealed this week was a product of the online world’s makeshift design.
Chuck Hagel says that despite force’s growth, U.S. will practice “restraint” in any operations outside the U.S.
The administration seeks legislation that would end the bulk gathering of Americans’ phone records.
DEBRIEF | An emerging political consensus supports an end to government holding phone records.
The agency wanted to see if Huawei was spying on the U.S. for Beijing, according to the Snowden leak.
Six executives met with the president and his aides to talk about how spying affects their businesses.
The surveillance system is capable of recording “100 percent” of calls in at least one foreign country.
Outgoing head of both NSA and Cyber Command tells a House panel that his cyberwarfare organization should be elevated to a full command akin to Central Command over the next year.
Rep. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-Md.) is trying to craft a bipartisan plan to end NSA collection of citizens’ call data.
Google is encrypting its search results worldwide. Here’s how they will look to Chinese censors: “1fe7897ad064478fc...”
But Adm. Michael Rogers said he wants some form of the record collection to be preserved.
The NSA leaker says that “bulk collection” means fewer resources for targeted scrutiny of actual suspects.
The program was code-named Optic Nerve, according to documents from Edward Snowden.
Gen. Keith Alexander says the U.S. shouldn’t wait until an ‘okay, that was unacceptable’ situation occurs.
Luke Harding captures the drama of Edward Snowden’s deeds.
Agency memo says unidentified individual unwittingly aided leak by providing log-in credentials.
Obama administration reforms are not “putting us out of business,” NSA’s deputy director says.
The Obama administration is exploring whether a law regarding U.S. attacks still applies to the group.
The amount of phone records gathered has plummeted as cellphone use has increased.
Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers would take on the challenge of mending the NSA’s image.
James Clapper offers blistering remarks at an annual hearing on the most significant U.S. security threats.
Firms will be permitted for first time to publicize how often they must furnish customer information to government.
Sen. Dianne Feinstein has opposed the president’s efforts to revamp U.S. drone and data-collection programs.
In online question-and-answer session, he says U.S. law precludes him from returning home.
Technical, logistical and political problems confront Obama’s goal of revising the controversial program.
President does not include ingestion of tens of trillions of records about phone calls, e-mails and locations.
President ends eavesdropping on friendly foreign governments, changes system of data collection.
President is expected to announce some new limits on the National Security Agency.
Oregon man guilty of Christmas tree bombing plot opens door for possible constitutional challenge to NSA program.
The tech firms are urging the White House and Congress to ban the bulk collection of Internet communications.
Attorney Robert S. Litt has led an unusually high-profile response to the Snowden leaks.
Review finds that the program “was not essential” to preventing terrorist attacks.
The agency is exploring how to relinquish control of the records while still being able to exploit them.
Documents provided by Snowden show race for a machine light-years ahead of those using zeroes and ones.
Alternatives to NSA storing massing amounts of records are facing resistance on multiple fronts.
His leaks have fundamentally altered the U.S. government’s relationship with its citizens, the rest of the world.
Government defends NSA’s program to intercept phone and e-mail communications without a warrant.
POST POLL | While government and business data tracking is a concern, many Americans use snooping tools.
In year-end press conference, president also faces questions on continuing gridlock in Washington.
The office of an Israeli prime minister, an E.U. official and the heads of aid groups were targets, documents say.
A court ruling and an expert panel cast doubt on phone effort’s legality and value in deterring terrorism.
Among the recommendations are an end to NSA collection and storage of Americans’ phone records.
In a meeting at the White House, they warned that a consumer backlash could harm the broader economy.
Court grants request for a preliminary injunction on controversial program, but stays the action pending appeal.
The agency’s cracking of A5/1 gives it the means to decode potentially billions of calls and texts.
Critics say agencies needed separate heads to avoid undue concentration of power in single individual.
“We can’t go back to a pre-9/11 moment,” Gen. Keith Alexander tells the Judiciary Committee.
How the NSA piggybacks onto the tracking behaviors of commercial companies to enable exploitation and surveillance.
The firms, including Microsoft, Google and Facebook, say there is an “urgent need” for reform.
Law enforcement made more than 9,000 requests last year, a congressional inquiry has revealed.
They add that they are surprised President Obama has not visited the agency to show his support.
The tech giant moves to reassure customers it will protect them against government surveillance.
Snowden documents show agency is collecting billions of records on whereabouts of mobile devices.
National security adviser is expected to make a formal recommendation to President Obama soon.
The company is moving toward a new effort to protect its Internet traffic amid suspicions of government spying.
This e-mail suggests Microsoft may have been compromised by the same program used to access Google and Yahoo data.
These slides suggest NSA programs targeting Google and Yahoo also had Microsoft in their sights.
One appears to be the original court document authorizing the NSA to conduct communications sweeps.
James Comey testifies that the risk of a major terrorist attack has fallen but “is more dispersed geographically.”
Some officials argue a shift would help avoid an undue concentration of power in one individual.
Report says intelligence community has also struggled with developing defenses against emerging threats.
New documents reveal exactly how the Post was able to determine that the NSA was peeking inside the Google and Yahoo’s cloud network.
Concerns are expressed that Senate bill would validate NSA’s harvesting of telephone, e-mail records.
Measure passed by Intelligence Committee limits use of phone data but endorses its collection.
Disclosure of surveillance program on allies results in both diplomatic and intelligence service predicaments.
Letter from firms, including Google and Apple, calls for changes that would enhance privacy protections.
Agency positioned itself to collect from among millions of accounts, many belonging to Americans.
The NSA, working with its British counterpart, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), secretly taps into the internal networks of Yahoo and Google, the two biggest Internet companies by overall data traffic. The operation intercepts information flowing between the enormous data centers that those companies maintain around the world. In general, Google and Yahoo use privately owned or leased lines to synchronize their data centers. This graphic shows how the NSA and GCHQ break into those internal networks, using Google’s as an example. Less is known about Yahoo’s networks, but the NSA operations are thought to be similar.
Keith Alexander says reports that NSA collected records of European citizens is “completely false.”
End the agency’s bulk collection of phone records or endorse it?
Documents contain material about operations that involve countries not publicly allied with the United States.
The allegations rocked Germany’s government and created a new diplomatic challenge for Obama.
EXCLUSIVE | The drone campaign in Pakistan — often depicted as the CIA’s exclusive domain — relies heavily on the NSA’s ability to collect enormous quantities of e-mail, phone calls and other fragments of intelligence.
The contact information is intercepted as it moves across global data links. Many lists belong to Americans.
Document provided legal foundation for NSA’s collection of all Americans’ phone records.
Electronic Frontier Foundation doesn’t want to play political games, but how can it not?
Agency is trying to regain industry’s faith in order to work cooperatively against cyber-threats.
Gen. Keith Alexander is building up forces to fend off cyberattacks; some question the centralizing of power.
This 2006 research paper lays out the technical features of Tor and proposes a number of attacks.
Agency has worked for years to unmask users on one the world’s most popular encryption networks.
Director says two-year effort was discontinued and that data were not used for intelligence analysis.
Seeking foreign intelligence, the agency has used e-mail and phone call data to build extensive graphs.
At Senate hearing, Feinstein adds that surveillance reforms could boost trust and transparency.
Gen. Keith Alexander says database can help “connect the dots” between domestic and foreign threats.
Congress to consider NSA surveillance reforms.
The agency searched a massive database of phone-call records in violation of privacy rules.
Move allowed agency to search for Americans’ communications.
EXCLUSIVE | The Web giant accelerates a program to make it harder for outsiders to intercept its user information.
Agency has worked with its British counterpart to break codes that protect data sent across Web.
Cells of engineers try to find ways to exploit technological vulnerabilities of the deadly weapons system.
Stark assessments of the purported ally contained in the documents belie U.S. officials’ public statements.
The U.S. suspects that people with ties to al-Qaeda or other groups have tried to get jobs, a document shows.
The U.S. will release an annual report about its surveillance orders, in addition to other recent disclosures.
Despite huge funding, agencies are unable to provide critical data on a range of national security threats.
Documents offer a look at program expected to cost $278 million in the current fiscal year.
Satellites aimed dozens of receivers over Pakistan to collect intelligence as the mission unfolded.
A new document reveals the extent of the collection before the FISA court forced the agency to revise its tactics.
Some lawmakers called for greater transparency in the surveillance operations of the National Security Agency.
Agency also has overstepped legal authority since Congress gave it broad new power in 2008.
Obama administration faces growing political skepticism about the counterterrorism program.
Robert Seldon Lady was freed two days after he was detained by Panama authorities, officials said.
Case in 2005 drew attention to agency practice known as “extraordinary rendition.”
Aggressive methods fuel debate over divide between privacy, security.
Intelligence officials fear leaker Edward Snowden has information on spying on China, other critical targets.
The grounding of the Bolivian president’s plane feeds talk that U.S. officials are calling the shots.
As leaders of France and Germany react to reports of NSA monitoring, Obama defends agency’s methods.
Inadvertent missteps, legal parsing blamed for errors and false assertions about classified programs.
Judges at the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court feel report distorts their role in data-collection approvals.
Surveillance program under president’s authority collected content, metadata from Americans.
The agency removed the four-page document after concerns about its accuracy were raised by lawmakers.
The ability of the contractor-turned-fugitive to evade arrest is raising the new concerns.
The bill seeks to raise the legal bar the government must meet before obtaining call detail records.
The NSA’s head and others defended the effectiveness and oversight of leaked surveillance programs.
He claims he exposed only hacking of civilian targets, not “legitimate military targets.”
Two of the NSA’s four main collection programs target revealing metadata from Web, phone communications.
Administration officials defend surveillance programs amid calls for additional transparency.
In an interview with a Hong Kong paper, Edward Snowden asserts the U.S. has mounted hacking operations against hundreds of Chinese targets since 2009.
Gen. Keith Alexander says agency will make public records showing success of secret programs
Google, Facebook, Microsoft and others want U.S. officials to ease secrecy rules on data collection.
The Edward Snowden and Bradley Manning cases represent back-to-back blows for U.S. intelligence.
The debate tips toward taking action when U.S. officials believe Inspire promotes an imminent threat.
Edward Snowden leaked documents on distinctly different operations.
The NSA contractor “wanted to expose the “surveillance state.”
The leaker, at times eloquent and at times jittery, took the code name “Verax,” or “truth teller” in Latin.
Daniel Ellsberg praises NSA leaker while others condemn him for revealing surveillance programs.
Edward Snowden, a 29-year-old Booz Allen Hamilton employee, says he’s done nothing wrong in revealing government surveillance programs.