Then again, perhaps his very traditionalism inclined him to this decision. After all, he wouldn’t have looked for only recent precedents. He’d have gone back through the church’s 2,000-year history and noted that several popes have abdicated — the most recent being Gregory XII, who left office in 1415. Father Tom Reese, a scholar of Vatican politics, points out that Gregory left at the request of the Council of Constance to help end the Great Western Schism. You wonder: Does Benedict see his resignation as an occasion for pulling together a very divided church?
I have always regarded Benedict as a kind of neo-conservative — not in his foreign-policy attitudes but in sociological terms. Like the original neo-conservatives, Benedict was a moderate progressive before he became a conservative. He was pushed to the right, as so many neo-conservatives were, by a deep, visceral reaction to the rebellions of the 1960s.
As I prepared to write a profile of then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger for the New York Times Magazine in 1985, he invited questions to which he provided written answers that were surprisingly revealing.
The student revolts of 1968 deeply alarmed him. “At the time,” he wrote, “I was dean of the faculty of theology at [the University of] Tubingen, and in all the university assemblies in which I participated, I could notice all kinds of terror, from subtle psycho-terror up to violence.”
He described how he initially regarded Marxism as a possible corrective to certain strains of modern thought. But he came in the late 1960s to identify it with “terror.” He added: “I think that in those years, I learned where discussion must stop because it is turning into a lie and resistance must begin in order to maintain freedom.”
From this, it’s possible to see how a one-time liberal became an ardent critic not only of Marxism but of liberalizing trends in the church, including the great reforms of the Second Vatican Council and Pope John XXIII. As he put it in a famous series of interviews before he became pope with the Italian journalist Vittorio Messori, “one has encountered dissension [in the church], which seems to have passed over from self-criticism to self-destruction.” Benedict was thus intent on pressing the most conservative interpretations of the meaning of Vatican II, which liberals saw as undoing the council’s forward-looking spirit.
Liberal Catholics (myself included) thus greeted Benedict’s election as pope in 2005 with a certain alarm. In the end, Benedict was somewhat less conservative than liberals feared — and somewhat less conservative than conservatives hoped. His most important encyclicals were decidedly progressive on economic matters, and he put far more emphasis on God’s love than on His judgment.
The paradoxes of Benedict — and perhaps of Catholicism itself — were visible in two statements he made last Christmas. Progressives could only welcome an op-ed piece he wrote for the Financial Times on Dec. 19 in which he declared that “Christians fight poverty out of a recognition of the supreme dignity of every human being, created in God’s image and destined for eternal life.”
He added: “They work for more equitable sharing of the earth’s resources out of a belief that — as stewards of God’s creation — we have a duty to care for the weakest and most vulnerable. Christians oppose greed and exploitation . . . . The belief in the transcendent destiny of every human being gives urgency to the task of promoting peace and justice for all.”
Yet he followed this with a Christmas message denouncing gay marriage, declaring that that gays and lesbians were turning their backs on the “essence of the human creature” and denying “their nature.”
As Michael Sean Winters noted this morning on his National Catholic Reporter blog, resignation was “the most modernizing decision Pope Benedict has taken,” since it emphasizes the responsibilities of a pope as a leader and not the “aura” of the papacy itself. His decision opens up a period of soul-searching that Catholicism badly needs.
Catholics believe that the Holy Spirit inspires the papal conclaves that choose successors to St. Peter. In prompting this much-needed debate now rather than hanging onto office and presiding as his energies failed him, Benedict has made what can be seen as an inspired decision that will give the church a chance to confront its crises — and its opportunities.
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