Obama speaks out against Islamic State militants. (AP)
A mandate from Congress could provide justification for the unlimited use of force against the Islamic State across Iraq and Syria. The new authorization is one of several alternatives under review as the White House grapples with whether and how to try to militarily defeat the Sunni Muslim group, which controls a wide swath of territory between Damascus and Baghdad.
In January 2011, the Egyptian army proclaimed it would not raise its weapons against civilian protesters, but in the August 2013 Rabaa massacre, it oversaw one of the biggest mass killings of protesters anywhere.