Texas officials are battling the Justice Department to put in place a voter-ID law that a federal court has ruled was discriminatory. In North Carolina, the GOP-controlled legislature scaled back early voting and ended a pre-registration program for high school students nearing voting age.
Nowhere is the debate more heated than in Florida, where the chaotic recount in the disputed 2000 presidential race took place.
Florida election officials are set to resume an effort to remove noncitizens from the state’s voting rolls. A purge last year ended in embarrassment after hundreds of American citizens, most of whom were black or Hispanic, were asked to prove their citizenship or risk losing their right to vote.
Republican leaders across the South say the new measures are needed to prevent voter fraud, even though such crimes are rare. Democrats and civil rights groups say the changes are political attacks aimed at minorities and students — voting groups that tend to lean Democratic — in states with legacies of poll taxes and literacy tests.
In North Carolina, for example, a State Board of Elections survey found that more than 600,000 registered voters did not have a state-issued ID, a requirement to vote under the state’s new law. Many of those voters are young, black, poor or elderly.
“We’re in the middle of the biggest wave of voter suppression since the Voting Rights Act was enacted,” said Katherine
Culliton-González, director of voter protection for the Advancement Project, a Washington-based civil rights group that has undertaken legal challenges in several states.
For five decades, states and localities with a history of discrimination had to submit all election laws — whether they involved new congressional district maps, precinct locations or voting hours — to federal lawyers for approval. That practice ended in June when the Supreme Court struck down the provision in the Voting Rights Act as outdated.
Voting rights groups said recent actions by Southern states highlight the need for Congress to retool the rejected sections of the landmark 1965 law that were credited with ensuring ballot access to millions of blacks, American Indians and other minorities.
The administration is using the remaining parts of the law to bring court cases.
When Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. announced a suit last month to place Texas under federal supervision again, he said the Justice Department would not allow the high court’s decision “to be interpreted as open season for states to pursue measures that suppress voting rights.”