As the presidential campaign careens toward the finish line, John F. Kerry is denouncing deep Social Security cutbacks that President Bush has not proposed. And Bush is slamming "government-run" health care that Kerry has refused to embrace.
Kerry says the president could bring back a military draft, despite Bush's vociferous denials. Bush suggests Kerry regards terrorism as a "nuisance" when the senator merely said his goal is to reduce it to that level.
Video Archive: Video and Washington Post analysis of ads from Bush and Kerry.
In their stump speeches and attack ads, the candidates have moved beyond assailing -- critics would say distorting -- their opponents' positions and are setting up straw men that they enthusiastically knock down. They are, some analysts say, campaigning against caricatures.
"In the specifics, you can get away with just about anything," said Shanto Iyengar, chairman of Stanford University's communications department. "Ninety-five percent of the American public knows very little about the details. The only people who care about it are journalists and pundits. In the real world, people don't have time."
Exaggerations are as old as television advertising itself. The particularly bitter tone of the candidates' ads in 2004 -- amplified by even tougher language by some independent "527" groups -- has been building for months.
From March through August, Bush tried to bury Kerry under a blizzard of attack ads, some of them based on misleading charges, while the Massachusetts senator aired mainly positive ads. Even after turning negative in September, Kerry has pushed the factual envelope less often than the president -- until recently.
Beginning in 1992, a few news organizations began running fact-checking articles on presidential ads, which for a time provided a modest check on questionable claims. That fall, for example, journalists touched off a front-page controversy when they said President George H.W. Bush was relying on disputed assumptions with an ad charging that Bill Clinton would raise taxes on some middle-class individuals by more than $2,000 a year.
But these efforts have been overshadowed by a dramatic increase in presidential ad spending, along with bolder advertising claims in an increasingly raucous political culture. Television networks often replay these attack ads with only periodic attempts at verifying them.
"The standards in this political season for accuracy are lower than they have ever been, and the penalty for fabrication is lower than it's ever been," said Democratic media consultant Mandy Grunwald. But she said news accounts that portray both sides as equally culpable miss the mark. "I think the Bush folks in government and the campaign make stuff up more than anyone I've ever seen and have largely paid no penalty for it," she said, in part because "the volume of their advertising is so much greater than the volume of journalism."
Republican media consultant Don Sipple questioned whether the closing barrage will move the meter for either candidate.
"They're stuck in this 30-second attack culture, and I think it's a wash," he said, because voters "tend to discount new fear-mongering this late in a campaign." As for Kerry's charges against Bush, Sipple said: "To some extent, he's gotten an easier ride because of the predisposition of the press to want a horse race."
A Kerry ad, based on a private comment Bush is reported to have made on wanting to privatize Social Security, says: "Now Bush has a plan that cuts Social Security benefits by 30 to 45 percent." But the president, while favoring allowing younger workers to put part of their benefits in private accounts, has never put forth a plan -- and has vowed that any change would not affect current retirees.
The Social Security ad is one of a number that Kerry's campaign has released to generate news coverage but has not purchased time to broadcast.
Kerry said last week that there is a "great potential" that Bush will reinstate the draft. The president has repeatedly denied this, and Bush spokesman Steve Schmidt, in a common campaign refrain, said the charge shows Kerry "will do or say anything to get elected."