Obituary: King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz
A Leader Who Fostered Progress Even as He Held to Insular Traditions
Tuesday, August 2, 2005
King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia, who died Aug. 1 at the age of about 84, was a man of contradictions who ruled a country of contradictions.
By turns profligate and abstemious, corrupt and correct, energetic and lazy, dedicated and indifferent, he demonstrated both voracious appetites and undoubted abilities. He was admired as a forward-looking modernizer and loathed as a corrupt autocrat, sometimes by the same analysts.
His greatest accomplishment was to hold his country together and preserve his family's rule in an era of immense pressures, both domestic and external.
Slowed by illness in the past decade, he became largely a figurehead, appearing on television on ceremonial occasions but leaving most key decisions to his younger brothers. After suffering a stroke in late 1995, Fahd officially transferred his authority to his half brother and heir apparent, Crown Prince Abdullah. The transfer was ostensibly temporary and Fahd officially reclaimed his power several weeks later, but he exerted little direct control over the kingdom's day-to-day affairs.
His official title, by which he was always identified in the Saudi media, was "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in Mecca and Medina. Fahd adopted that label in 1986, during a time when the kingdom was still recovering from its greatest domestic trauma, the 1979 seizure by religious fanatics of the Grand Mosque at Mecca, the holiest site in Islam, and Fahd was polishing his credentials as the protector and guarantor of the faith.
In international affairs, Fahd was a relative moderate on Israel, a proponent of stable oil prices and a usually reliable strategic and economic partner of the United States. Conservative Saudis and Muslims around the world reviled him for allowing U.S. and other foreign troops to establish themselves in the kingdom in preparation for the 1991 Persian Gulf War -- the action that made the House of Saud the principal target of Osama bin Laden -- but Fahd's admirers praised his courage in breaking out of Saudi Arabia's xenophobic tradition and making a crucial decision in defense of the kingdom's strategic interests.
As a young prince, Fahd originally made his mark as an advocate of increased educational opportunities for the Saudi people, but as ruler, he was no liberal in domestic affairs. His government often resorted to harsh justice to keep his subjects in line, with public beheadings the preferred instrument of authority, and Fahd was widely criticized by Saudis and foreign residents alike for greatly increasing the authority of the country's conservative religious establishment in the 1980s.
Within the Saudi royal family, however, Fahd was known as an affable compromiser who sought to restrain brothers and cousins who advocated even tougher measures to preserve the country's rigidly orthodox social and religious customs.
As king since 1982 and de facto ruler for several years before that under a weak predecessor, Fahd presided over the spectacular modernization of the country while campaigning to keep its social, political and religious environment as close as possible to what they were in the desert backwater of his youth.
Fahd's name and face were familiar to everyone in the Arab world, but he was never a figure of admiration to the Arab masses or a revered leader in the mold of Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser. That was not Fahd's aim or his destined role. In the unique environment of Saudi Arabia, Fahd did what he was born to do: preside over a family-run enterprise, keep potential rivals bottled up or bought off, paper over the cracks in Saudi society and defend the House of Saud against its innumerable enemies.
During Fahd's eventful lifetime, his country changed to an almost incomprehensible degree. When he was born in about 1921, before oil was discovered, the Arabian Peninsula was a remote, impoverished and sparsely populated land where schools were few, roads and hospitals fewer and the sword was the law.
As a young cabinet minister, as crown prince and as king, Fahd was by reputation a driving force in channeling untold billions of the country's oil revenue into construction of roads, hospitals, housing, airports, communications networks and schools, including schools for girls. The great challenge he faced as king was balancing the inevitable pressure for social change engendered by this material transformation with the kingdom's insular, conservative social and religious traditions.