'Judicial Activism' to Be Thankful For
The celebration of Rosa Parks's extraordinary contribution to America presents an excellent opportunity for me to summon all the strength at my command so that I may shout at the top of my lungs: "Thank God Almighty for liberal judicial activism." I suppose this makes me a heretic in a town where radical right dogma reigns supreme, especially after the trashing of White House counsel and now-withdrawn Supreme Court nominee Harriet Miers. But I'll still pay tribute to activist judges. After all, it was a default by elected leaders that led an "activist" Supreme Court to decide in 1956 that it was unconstitutional to require that Rosa Parks and other black passengers in Montgomery, Ala., sit at the back of buses solely because of their race.
This celebration of Parks's life is also a chance to set the record straight. The culprits in Parks's case weren't limited to the white bus driver who told her to give up her seat to a white man or the white police officer who arrested her. The folks who really degraded Parks and other black bus riders were the Alabamans who put and kept Jim Crow laws on the books. Had it been left up to them, the arrests of Rosa Parks and other African Americans would have continued. And of course we can't leave out Alabama's white majority, which either liked or was indifferent to segregation.
When the Montgomery Improvement Association, led by a 26-year-old preacher, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., tried to negotiate a bus desegregation plan with the city commission and the bus company, all it got in return was resistance -- oh, yes, and a stick of dynamite thrown into King's home. Thus the lawsuit.
Alabama argued then, as do conservatives today, that courts have no business second- guessing decisions of states and cities that are acting within their own laws. But the Supreme Court, looking at the Constitution, saw something else. True, there was not one word in the Constitution about the operation of bus companies or the seating of passengers. But "activist" high court justices, bless their souls, examining the due process and equal protection clauses of the 14th Amendment, found violations of the rights of black passengers that Alabama was either too blind or too unrepentant to see.
It wasn't the first time.
The year before Rosa Parks took her stand by keeping her seat, the Supreme Court reviewed the legal precedent established decades earlier in Plessy v. Ferguson, which blessed the "separate but equal" doctrine. Settled law though Plessy may have been, the "liberal" Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that school segregation "solely on the basis of race" violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
Make no mistake: It was within the power of state legislatures and Congress to put a halt to racial discrimination in public education. Had they wanted to or had they been commanded by a popular majority to bring about equal access to educational opportunity, legislators could have done so. Instead they allowed that abomination called Plessy to stand, leaving it up to nonviolent protests and judicial tests to challenge racial discrimination in public education.
So on the occasion of Rosa Parks's death, I also pay tribute to "activist" justices such as Warren, William O. Douglas, William Brennan and Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyer and later a justice. They are and will always be among my heroes.
(I'll pause here to allow my conservative colleagues to get hold of themselves.)
To continue . Were it not for "liberal, activist" courts, who knows how long it would have been before:
Rosa Parks could have sat anywhere she wanted on a bus?
Miscegenation laws would have been invalidated?