Korean Researcher Is Said to Admit Stem Cell Fakery
Friday, December 16, 2005
Most and possibly all of the human embryonic stem cell cultures reportedly made by a South Korean research team this year were fake, a member of the team told Korean news outlets yesterday.
Roh Sung Il, an executive at MizMedi Hospital in Seoul, said stem cell pioneer Hwang Woo Suk told him that nine of 11 reported cell lines were faked. Roh reportedly said he had doubts about the remaining two lines.
Roh also said that Hwang told him that his stem cells had died and that he had presented ones from Roh's laboratory as his own in their research paper in the journal Science. According to the news reports, the two agreed they would ask the journal to retract the paper, which was published May 19.
That paper and another landmark report by Hwang's group, published last year, had documented the first successful creation of embryonic stem cells from cloned human embryos -- a big step toward the ability to grow customized tissues for transplantation into people with failing organs.
If the work does prove to be largely fraudulent, it will be a major scientific setback for one of the most talked-about new avenues of biomedical research. It could also be a major political setback for the field, which has long been mired in controversy because it depends on the creation and destruction of human embryos.
Most such research is being done outside the United States because federal law prohibits the public funding of it here, but Congress is poised to consider loosening restrictions. Advocates for patients fear that an overseas scandal may undermine their campaign to increase U.S. support for what they consider a promising therapeutic strategy.
Roh's statements were reported by three television networks and in the Korea Times. Neither he nor Hwang nor their sole American collaborator, Gerald P. Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh, could be contacted directly. None returned telephone or e-mail messages.
It was unclear yesterday whether the suspicion was that Hwang had made stem cells but misrepresented some details about them, or that he had never made them at all. Consequently, the scientific community was left with little more than secondhand reports that a 25-author paper generally agreed to be one of the most important published this year was fraudulent.
The four top editors of Science sent e-mail messages yesterday to all of the paper's authors seeking clarification.
"We basically want them to come directly to us if they have any questions about the data in the papers," said Executive Editor Monica M. Bradford. Science has received no request for a retraction from Roh, Hwang or any of their collaborators, she added.
The stem cell lines were reportedly made by injecting nuclear DNA -- the stored genetic information of an individual -- into egg cells whose own nuclear DNA had been removed. Each "hybrid" cell was then stimulated to divide and form an embryo. Stem cells, each capable of developing into every type of tissue in the body, are then harvested from the embryo when it is about 4 days old and consists of a few hundred cells.
The resulting tissue is a clone -- an exact genetic copy of one person. As such, it could theoretically generate biological "replacement parts" for the person who donated the nuclear DNA without threat the parts would be rejected as foreign.