Capital's New Four-Letter Word

With visions of earmarks dancing in his head, Sen. Tom Coburn has lauded
With visions of earmarks dancing in his head, Sen. Tom Coburn has lauded "an army of citizen investigators." (By Melina Mara -- The Washington Post)
By Shailagh Murray
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, January 27, 2006

These are dark days for earmarks.

Packing bills with special provisions has long been an honored tradition in Congress, but now a pall has fallen over the practice. Bolstered by a budget crisis and a series of scandals involving legislative favors, an increasingly prolific government watchdog movement is turning "pork" into a four-letter word.

These scrappy outfits are run by small corps of veteran staffers whose offices look more like dorm rooms than the posh K Street suites occupied by their archnemeses: lobbyists. Taxpayers for Common Sense elevated an obscure Alaska highway project into the now-infamous "Bridge to Nowhere." Citizens Against Government Waste started battling runaway Hurricane Katrina spending three days after the storm hit the Gulf Coast.

The two groups joined forces this month with the National Taxpayers Union, a conservative, low-tax organization, to combat the rising cost of the new D.C. baseball stadium. Other watchdog targets include indicted former representative Randy "Duke" Cunningham (R-Calif.), the Pentagon and the U.S. Postal Service.

The watchdogs work closely with friendly lawmakers, such as Sen. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.), who tried to redirect funding for the "Bridge to Nowhere" to a New Orleans bridge ruined by Hurricane Katrina. The informal investigative alliance also includes Internet bloggers, including a "porkbusters" campaign on the site, an online effort to mobilize against wasteful federal spending.

"It's a $2.4 trillion budget," said Steve Ellis, vice president of Taxpayers for Common Sense. "There's work for everybody."

Congress is embarrassed enough by the Cunningham and Jack Abramoff scandals, both involving huge sums of cash for legislative favors, that lawmakers are considering ways to crack down on earmarks, which typically show up in bills at the last minute, after little or no scrutiny. The watchdog groups are wary that Congress will wind up focusing on lobbying-related activities, rather than cleaning up the legislative process.

"We hope that there's a recognition that it's not just lobbying," said Thomas A. Schatz, president of Citizens Against Government Waste. "It's more a matter of how the whole process works."

Although Republicans claim to be the party of small government and fiscal restraint, Schatz's group found that total earmarks rose to 13,997 in 2005, a huge increase from the 1995 total of 1,349. The process appears to have slowed with the fiscal 2006 appropriations bills, with the exception of the defense measure, which preliminary analysis by the groups suggests is the usual earmark treasure trove.

Coburn, one of the Senate's toughest earmark critics, attributed the watchdog movement's growing influence to a decline in congressional oversight. What he calls "an army of citizen investigators" is "filling an oversight gap created by Congress's refusal to perform one of its core responsibilities," Coburn said.

Appropriations Chairman Thad Cochran (R-Miss.) noted that Senate rules already allow senators to attempt to strike provisions from bills -- as Coburn tried with his "Bridge to Nowhere" amendment. And while there may be earmarking excesses, Cochran added, the practice is entwined with one of the most sacrosanct of Congress's duties: deciding how federal money is spent.

"It serves a useful purpose for people to point out things," said Cochran, referring to the watchdog groups. But he added, "I think senators would be reluctant to approve a law that says you can't have any specific project appropriated in a bill."

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