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Ruth Brown, 78; R& B Singer Championed Musicians' Rights
Ms. Brown described herself as a mischievous child, sneaking out at night to sing for troops at wartime USO shows and dressing like singer Billie Holiday, down to the trademark gardenia in her hair.
Her singing led to an early, ill-fated marriage to a bigamous sailor named Jimmy Brown (she kept his name professionally). Unwelcome at her family's home, she wound up with the Lucky Millinder band in Detroit, but the job ended a month later in Washington when she was caught serving drinks to the musicians.
She stayed on in the city, where she found important backers such as nightclub owner Blanche Calloway, sister of bandleader Cab Calloway, and Willis Conover, a Voice of America disc jockey.
Conover urged Ahmet Ertegun and Herb Abramson, who had just started Atlantic, to sign her. Ms. Brown was critically injured in a car accident on her way to the New York studios. Atlantic paid for her 11-month hospital stay, and she made her recording debut in 1949 on crutches.
Ms. Brown became the company's first star, variously marketed as "Miss Rhythm" and "the girl with the tear in her voice." She toured on bills with Ray Charles, Billy Eckstine and Clyde McPhatter, with whom she sang a duet of "Love Has Joined Us Together" and had a child.
With most of her songs played on radio stations catering to black listeners, she felt overshadowed by white singers who covered songs she first popularized, such as "Oh What a Dream." She later said, angrily: "I never got to do 'The Ed Sullivan Show.' Patti Page did."
She left Atlantic in the early 1960s making $350 per record side. After marrying a police officer who lived on Long Island, she attempted a more conventional life, but the marriage grew strained when she began singing nights.
After holding a series of low-paying jobs -- floor scrubber, bus driver -- she wrote to Atlantic's Ertegun asking for money. He sent a $1,000 check -- "crumbs from the rich man's label," she said in her 1996 memoir, "Miss Rhythm," written with Andrew Yule.
Legal efforts to extract money she thought she was owed were "expertly stonewalled by the powers at Atlantic," she wrote. "And always, always there was the constant threat from them: Leave, get lost, drop it, or we'll sue for recovery of the money you owe" from production costs calculated by the company.
Her situation began to improve in the early 1970s, after comedian Redd Foxx, an old friend, took an interest in her circumstances. Foxx funded her move to Los Angeles and got her acting work in stage musicals and TV shows, including his "Sanford and Son."
Her rise was slow, but she cultivated many new fans as a flamboyant disc jockey in John Waters's "Hairspray" (1988). She followed with a starring role in "Black and Blue," and reviewers noted her gift at conveying with extraordinary sauciness the furniture-store innuendo of Alexander Hill and Andy Razaf's "If I Can't Sell It, I'll Keep Sitting On It."
She also hosted a public radio blues program and in 1993 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. She overcame the effects of a stroke in 2000 and continued an active singing career in Las Vegas and elsewhere until her illness.
Of her offstage life, Ms. Brown once said, "I could pick a good song, but I sure couldn't pick a man."
After her first marriage ended, she had a romance with saxophonist Willis "Gator Tail" Jackson, whom she described as a Lothario. She said her second husband, saxophonist Earl Swanson, was a drug addict who beat her; they divorced. Her third marriage, to police officer Bill Blunt, also ended in divorce.
Survivors include a son from her relationship with McPhatter, singer Ronnie McPhatter of Los Angeles; a son from her second marriage, Earl Swanson Jr. of Henderson; three brothers; a sister; and a grandson.