One Thing We Can't Build Alone in Iraq
When Columbia University sociologist Peter Bearman dived into the world of the white-gloved workers who open the front doors of expensive New York apartment buildings, he found that most people who applied for jobs as doormen never got one. Most doormen, however, had not applied for their jobs.
The explanation for the puzzle, laid out in Bearman's 2005 book, "Doormen," lies in the social networks that pass along word about a job opening. If you are part of that network, you hear about jobs even if you don't need one. If you are outside the network, you're out of luck.
"Most people in America get their jobs because of who they know, not what they know," said Robert Putnam, a political scientist at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "It's not nepotism -- one person knows me and another person finds out and someone says, 'Did you hear there is a new job at the bank?' or they say, 'Do you know a good lawyer?' "
The example of the doormen highlights the importance of something that Putnam calls social capital: a measure of how closely people in the community are interconnected. Levels of social capital predict everything from the quality of schools and local government, to the risk a country will go down in corruption or blow up in civil war.
Ideas related to social capital have many applications to U.S. domestic challenges but are especially instructive to the situation in Iraq, because they suggest that the model of reconstruction the United States has pursued there is fundamentally flawed.
The problem with an external agent handing down largesse -- building bridges, roads and schools, for instance -- is that it runs counter to everything known about how social capital grows, Putnam said. And without social capital, societies fall apart, even if the roads are smooth and the trains run on time.
So what exactly is social capital? Putnam, the author of the 2005 book "Bowling Alone," said it describes how much people in a community feel responsible for each other.
"People tend to obey the rules not because they are worried about cops but because they have obligations to other people," Putnam said. "In the U.S., tax compliance is powerfully predicted by the level of social capital in a community."
While the concept feels vague, a new study in the Journal of Politics shows social capital can be measured and tracked. Duke University political scientist Anirudh Krishna followed a number of indexes of social capital in villages in India and showed social interconnectedness growing in some places and fraying in others. Krishna asked villagers, for example, whether they would prefer to own 15 acres of land on their own, or 40 acres of land with another person. Villagers in areas with high social capital were happy to trust partners.
Villages with high social capital made better use of their resources, because people cooperated with each other instead of wasting money guarding against each other.
But Krishna also found that government aid and nongovernmental organizations could do virtually nothing to build social capital -- contractors and aid agencies can build bridges, but they cannot build connections between people.
"You cannot build social capital from above," he said. "It can only be built by the people involved."