A Backdrop for Life: An Iconic Home's Lesson in Architectural Humility
Last month I visited a renowned house, the home of Charles and Ray Eames, in Pacific Palisades, Calif.
The Eameses, the most celebrated husband-and-wife design team of the 20th century, are recognized for their furniture, movies and exhibitions, but their house, which created a sensation when it was built in 1949, is not well known outside the design professions.
Architects love the house because it was a radical departure from conventional residential design and because it transformed the ordinary into something extraordinary. Most houses of similar iconic status are custom-built with rich materials by a crew of highly skilled craftsmen for wealthy owners. This one was built with off-the-shelf materials used for commercial and light industrial buildings and today's big-box retail stores, including steel framing, steel roof decking and metal casement windows.
For the non-architect, the house conveys a simple message that is often lost when planning a house or a major remodel: A house is merely a backdrop for your life. It becomes your home when you surround yourself with things you love.
The house and adjoining studio are two light-filled boxes separated by a courtyard. As with everything the couple designed, it appears to be a simple idea that was effortlessly executed, but the background is more complicated.
A prefabricated steel-frame house was unusual in 1949. The Eameses chose it because Arts and Architecture magazine editor John Entenza commissioned them, along with seven other teams, to design houses that would showcase both mass-produced, industrialized housing and modern, open floor plans to a public eager to buy almost anything when World War II rationing ended. Unlike the other teams, the Eameses planned to live in the house they designed. They built it on a three-acre meadow that overlooks the Pacific Ocean.
The steel framing led naturally to the boxy shape of the house and studio, and to large spaces with high ceilings where this professional couple could, as Charles Eames described it, "both work and play."
Another advantage of the steel framing was the degree of artistic freedom it afforded in designing the exterior walls. Because the framing supported the roof, the walls needed only to enclose the space. In the mild climate of Southern California, they could be glass.
They are not like any you have ever seen. There is no obvious, repeated pattern; there is endlessly interesting theme and variation.
The windows are of differing sizes and groupings, each one highlighted by the bold dark lines of the painted frames. To add some counterpoint to the mix, solid panels painted white, black, gray, and brilliant blue, red and yellow are interspersed among the windows. The overall effect is akin to a Mondrian painting.
Inside, the first surprise is the size -- it's modest, 1,500 square feet. The second is the large, two-story living room.
The living room is close in size and volume to that of the two-story family rooms that have been popular for the past 20 years, but this is a different experience. In 1949, it must have been breathtaking.