A Third of Patients On Transplant List Are Not Eligible
Saturday, March 22, 2008
The list of patients waiting for organ transplants, which is widely used to promote organ donations, includes thousands who are ineligible for the operations, according to statistics kept by the national network that manages the allocation of organs.
More than a third of the nearly 98,000 patients on the list at any one time are classified as "inactive," meaning they could not be given an organ if it became available because they are too sick, or not sick enough, or for some other, often unexplained, reason.
Although the need for organs far outpaces the supply, critics say the large number of inactive patients on the list may signal that potential recipients are languishing in limbo too long and that including them could mislead potential donors, recipients and policymakers about the magnitude of the need.
Officials at the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), which oversees the transplant system under a federal contract and provided a breakdown of its waiting list at the request of The Washington Post, defend the practice. Many patients are inactive for only short periods because of temporary complications or other issues that are often resolved, they say.
But critics note that a significant number of patients have been inactive for more than two years and may never become eligible.
"The wait list is dishonest," said Donna L. Luebke, a nurse who said she was rebuked by UNOS officials when she complained about the list near the end of the three years she served on the organization's board of directors. "The public deserves to know the true numbers."
The revelation comes at a time when advocates of organ donation have come under fire for using increasingly aggressive strategies to obtain organs, justifying their efforts by citing the long and steadily growing waiting list.
"Part of the argument for the push to get more people to be donors, and for expanding the types of procedures that we do to get organs, is there's all these people waiting for organs and dying in the meantime," said Joan McGregor, a bioethicist at Arizona State University. "If the number is not accurate, that's giving people the false impression that the situation is more serious than it is. It's deceptive."
The advocates, however, say that there are compelling reasons to keep many inactive patients on the list and that the continuing shortfall in organs overshadows any questions about them.
"Whether it's 75,000 or 100,000, there are still far more people who need transplants than can get them," said Robert Higgins, president-elect of UNOS. "None of this changes the fact that there is a significant number of people who die waiting."
Of 97,772 patients on the waiting list as of Feb. 29, which officials said provided a representative snapshot, 32,014 -- nearly 33 percent -- were inactive.
The proportion of inactive patients varied with the type of organ, ranging from nearly 26 percent of those needing livers to nearly 69 percent of those waiting for a pancreas. Nearly 33 percent of those waiting for kidneys, the transplant most often sought, were inactive.