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SCIENCE ROUNDUP

Sex, Drugs, a Greek Mathematician and Mastodons

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Sunday, June 1, 2008

BONK The Curious Coupling of Science and Sex By Mary Roach | Norton. 319 pp. $24.95

In keeping with her popular previous volumes Stiff and Spook, Bonk shows Mary Roach to be a meticulous researcher with a passion for the details most likely to make you queasy.

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Roach travels to Seattle to watch researchers tracking blood flow to the clitoris of a woman studying porn while in an MRI machine. In Taiwan she sees a surgeon flay a man's penis, remove blood vessels, then sew the member together again, ensuring that the fellow will never again have to struggle for an erection. She even hoofs it to Denmark to witness a trio of pig inseminators -- Martin, Morten and Thomas -- who stimulate grunting sows with their fists on the theory that female orgasms boost piglet production by sucking up sperm.

Roach is funny and a master of odd product placement, introducing readers to the McIntosh No. 5005 portable, wall-mounted electrophysiotherapy machine, an electrical probe that is jammed into the rectums of paralyzed men to get them to ejaculate for their childless wives, and the Nasco Missouri-Style Equine Artificial Vagina, for masturbating stallions, available with a handy leather carrying case.

Bonk goes too bonkers for footnotes, which although fascinating (pigs and people, we learn, are the only species whose males have a passion for fondling breasts), add up to a case of reader interruptus. And it suffers for being a smorgasbord of fun facts rather than a considered synthesis of what science can and cannot say about sex. But as insurance against a dull cocktail party, Bonk can't be beat.

-- Rick Weiss

THE MUSIC OF PYTHAGORAS How an Ancient Brotherhood Cracked The Code of the Universe and Lit the Path from Antiquity to Outer Space By Kitty Ferguson | Walker. 366 pp. $26.95

Kitty Ferguson's effort to suss out every detail about Pythagoras is exhaustive. But The Music of Pythagoras is exhausting because she lists what seemingly every ancient thinker wrote about the 6th-century B.C. Greek philosopher and mathematician, whether it was true or not.

For example, Pythagoras may or may not have discovered what is commonly called the Pythagorean theorem: The square on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. Pythagoras may or may not have endorsed sex that wasn't for procreation, may or may not have been a vegetarian, may or may not have avoided beans.

The author does state outright that Pythagoras and his students "found that there is pattern and order hidden behind the apparent variety and confusion of nature, and that it is possible to understand it through numbers." But the rest of the book reads like one long true-false test.

-- Susan P. Williams

ON SPEED The Many Lives of Amphetamine By Nicolas Rasmussen | New York Univ. 352 pp. $29.95

It's hard to believe that amphetamine, a drug of questionable medical utility and extreme addiction hazard, was once considered among the 20th century's pharmaceutical triumphs, on a par with penicillin and insulin. How it attained and lost that status is the subject of this perceptive book by a historian of science at the University of New South Wales in Australia.

Synthesized in the late 1920s by a chemist named Gordon Alles, amphetamine had so many effects it was hard to pick a disease for which it could be offered as a cure. It speeds the heart and raises blood pressure, dilates the bronchi and makes breathing easier, promotes wakefulness and lifts mood, suppresses hunger and promotes weight loss.

Scientists and pharmaceutical companies explored all these effects. Amphetamine and its derivatives were among the first substances tested with placebo-controlled trials. Many were run by military physicians looking for a way to keep tired soldiers awake; the drug was used extensively in World War II by both Allied and Axis forces.


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