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Shiites Across Iraq Protest U.S. Presence

Followers of Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr protested in Shiite enclaves across Iraq on Friday, May 30, 2008, against plans for a long-term security pact that would allow for an extended U.S. military presence in Iraq.

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By Sudarsan Raghavan
Washington Post Foreign Service
Saturday, May 31, 2008

BAGHDAD, May 30 -- Thousands of followers of Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr protested Friday in Shiite enclaves across Iraq against plans for a long-term security pact that would allow for an extended U.S. military presence in the country.

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"No, no to America. No, no to the occupation," demonstrators waving Iraqi flags and banners chanted after afternoon prayers in Sadr's Baghdad stronghold of Sadr City. "Yes, yes, Moqtada. Long live al-Sadr."

Some protesters carried pictures of Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki dressed as former president Saddam Hussein. One group burned an effigy of Maliki, then danced and stomped on it, as Iraqi government soldiers kept their distance.

The protests highlighted Sadr's still-formidable power and popularity among poor Shiites, even as the Shiite-led Iraqi government, backed by U.S. and British forces, has waged a campaign in recent months to weaken his movement and undermine his leadership credentials.

After his Mahdi Army militia engaged in fierce battles with U.S. and Iraqi forces last month, resulting in hundreds of civilian deaths, Sadr negotiated a pact that allowed Iraqi troops into Sadr City but barred American soldiers. The arrangement was viewed as a victory for Maliki's government and for U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.

But Sadr's image and popularity have since enjoyed a boost in Sadr City. Raids and airstrikes have decreased in the enclave, home to more than 2 million people, and U.S. and Iraqi government efforts are starting to bring basic services to his impoverished core constituency.

Friday's demonstrations were an attempt to bolster Sadr's nationalist aspirations and to rally more support among Iraqis who perceive that he has made face-saving concessions to the government and U.S. forces -- and as his militia comes under pressure in other parts of Iraq.

Many Iraqi army soldiers now in the enclave are Shiites who sympathize with Sadr and his movement.

"Most soldiers here are from southern parts of Iraq, and half of them are affiliated with the Sadr trend," said Salah Sabieh, an Iraqi soldier who was watching the protests. On the windshield of his military truck was a picture of Sadr. "He is the leader. We can't remove his picture. We are all Shiites," he said. "Moqtada Sadr represents all Iraq."

Sabieh said he supports Sadr's call against allowing any long-term U.S. troop presence in Iraq, which, like many of the protesters, Sabieh considers humiliating.

Sadr's primary ambition has long been a U.S. troop withdrawal. In recent years, his fighters have fought pitched battles against U.S. forces and his followers have staged numerous demonstrations. When Maliki refused to demand a timetable last year for the withdrawal of U.S. troops, Sadr pulled his political bloc from the ruling coalition.

The proposed Iraqi-American agreement would provide a legal framework for U.S. troops to remain in Iraq after Dec. 31, when their U.N. mandate expires. Sadr views the pact as a blow to Iraq's sovereignty. His main Shiite rival, Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, who heads the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq -- an influential Shiite political party that is part of Maliki's ruling coalition -- has also denounced the plans. Aides to Iraq's most influential Shiite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, have also expressed concern.

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