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Where the Car Is King, Tysons Faces a Dilemma

"This place built up from a gas station," said Reid Thompson, 37, a real estate agent with Long & Foster Real Estate in Tysons who grew up in nearby Great Falls. "You drove your tractor here, at least my grandparents did. The parking and the driving is a mindset. People in Northern Virginia are drivers."

Tysons is so paved over, in fact, that 50 percent of two watersheds within its boundaries, Pimmit Run and Scotts Run, are covered with asphalt. According to a Fairfax storm water management report, when 10 percent of a watershed is covered by paving, the health of a stream is affected. Paving that covers more than 25 percent of a watershed can "severely degrade" waterways, the report said.

Tysons Corner's love affair with parking is driven partly by its status as one of the most successful shopping destinations in the country. Aerial photographs of the district, or a glance from the balcony of the Tower Club, show vast oceans of cars, with the widest surrounding Tysons Corner Center and its competitor to the north, Tysons Galleria.

Yet private developers, including the big retailers, are ready to do with less parking. They welcome the chance to spend less money building parking structures, which can cost as much as $40,000 per parking space.

Macerich Corp., the owner of Tysons Corner Center, has received preliminary approval for a major redevelopment of its property that will include offices, condominiums, at least one hotel -- and a lower ratio of parking than the mall has. Among the details of the development is "shared parking" for offices, hotels and retail. Rather than provide one set of parking that empties out by day and another that empties out by night, the company will build less parking that will be in use round-the-clock.

Other approaches that Fairfax will consider include metered street parking, facilities for bicycles and distributing information about how to join car-sharing services such as Zipcar.

The market is also ready for a new approach, many said. Young professionals are eager to work in urban centers where they can shop and dine as well. The success of the Rosslyn-Ballston corridor in Arlington County, where 80,000 people work and where traffic has only marginally increased through the development boom of the last decade, provides the evidence, officials said. Developers built offices and residences with less parking -- and the people came.

"The market quickly figured out that you didn't need as much parking," said Arlington board member Chris Zimmerman (D).

Still, there will be challenges. Stewart Schwartz, executive director of the Coalition for Smarter Growth, lamented the decision by state and local officials to build the Metrorail extension aboveground through Tysons, which will limit the area's potential to be pretty and accessible on foot.

County planners may also be an impediment, Schwartz said, noting that the county increased its parking requirements recently for some developments.

Another challenge, Tyler said, is what to do with existing structures. One idea is to build housing on top of them, but that will require a market that can bear the cost of such expensive construction, a reality that could be years, even decades, away.

Ultimately, Schwartz and other advocates said, parking should not be free -- because it is not free. The cost in highway construction, pollution and lost productivity while stuck in traffic should be considered, he said. And drivers should pay a price for choosing to drive or be denied the privilege, he said.

"The idea that every car needs a parking place for every separate place that car goes is what has caused this spread-out landscape," Schwartz said. "Tysons is in transition. It can't realize the opportunity to create a great place when there's a giant parking lot wherever you look."

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