Wednesday, August 20, 2008
This Sunday, 80 Yale University freshmen will take their first step toward higher education. But there'll be no reading list or, for that matter, showers. On the syllabus: digging up carrots, picking tomatoes and building chicken coops.
The students, who make up 6 percent of the Class of 2012, are part of a pre-orientation program that lets students experience life on a family-owned organic farm. Once on campus, they will be able to register for any of this year's 19 food and agriculture courses, such as the popular "Psychology, Biology and Politics of Food." The number of food-related courses is up almost 50 percent from five years ago.
"There's a generation of students that understand that the modern world has been shaped by agriculture, and they are turning to their curriculum to understand those connections," says Melina Shannon-DiPietro, director of the six-year-old Yale Sustainable Food Project, which runs the pre-orientation program.
It might not be surprising to find a focus on food at Yale, with its high-profile on-campus farm and dining halls stocked with organic and local food, the brainchild of Chez Panisse chef Alice Waters. And several pioneering schools, such as Boston University and New York University, have offered food studies programs for more than a decade.
But food is now entering the academic mainstream: The University of New Hampshire this year will launch a dual major in eco-gastronomy that it hopes will attract 50 students to study food culture and small-batch cooking and spend a semester at Slow Food's university in Bra, Italy. The University of California at Davis this fall will introduce a food concentration for American studies majors.
In addition, courses with such titles as "Cultural Foods: Geography of Food and Wine" and "Cooking Up a Storm: Exploring Food in American Culture" are being offered in anthropology, economics, English, environmental studies and sociology departments across the country. Professors report they are popular across the board: At the University of California at Santa Cruz, an introductory anthropology class called "Food Through Culture" is capped at 70 students. But, says the professor, Melissa Caldwell, it could easily enroll at least twice that many. The course, previously taught sporadically, is likely to be offered yearly to meet the demand. Yale's "Psychology, Biology and Politics of Food," taught for the first time in fall 2006, had to be moved to one of the college's largest lecture halls to accommodate the 325 students who registered.
Professors point to several reasons behind the boom in food studies. One is competition for enrollment. As more students profess a broader awareness of food and its cultural and environmental implications, colleges are scrambling to offer courses to attract them.
Trends in academia also are fueling the growth. First, the explosion of food literature has produced books students want to read. "When I first taught a course on food seven years ago, it was hard to find books," says Carolyn de la Peña, associate professor of American studies at UC Davis. Instead, she had to use narrow, often technical articles that didn't appeal to students.
In the past 10 years, a body of literature has emerged: Eric Schlosser's "Fast Food Nation," Michael Pollan's "The Omnivore's Dilemma" and Morgan Spurlock's documentary film "Super Size Me," among others. "You can hand them to a student, and they can see how their own choices affect labor practices or health or the environment," de la Peña says. Among the books on her syllabus this year: Gourmet magazine editor Ruth Reichl's memoir, "Tender at the Bone," and "Horsemen of the Esophagus," a book about competitive eating.
"A lot of professors think practically and ask, are there books I can actually use?" agrees Warren Belasco, an American studies professor at the University of Maryland Baltimore County and a pioneer in food studies. "Now there are."
Academic publishers have picked up on the trend and are rushing to fill the gaps. Belasco's "Food: The Key Concepts" (Berg Publishers) will be published in November. Greenwood, an academic press, this year released four books on international food culture and will publish a five-book series, "Food Culture in America," next summer. "Every publisher wants to have something, a definitive intro to the field," Belasco says.
Not that food studies courses are all about reading. De la Peña sends her students to restaurants to observe and to their home kitchens to make their versions of comfort food. In Belasco's class, at the end of the semester each student is asked to cook a dish that would please every author on the class syllabus: "The idea is to force them to go over the course and think about what the author's main point of view is."