Iran Reports Launching Its First Domestically Produced Satellite Into Orbit
Wednesday, February 4, 2009
TEHRAN, Feb. 3 -- Iran said Tuesday it had successfully sent its first domestically produced satellite into orbit using an Iranian-made long-distance missile, joining an exclusive club of fewer than a dozen nations with such capabilities.
The Iranian launch was tracked by amateur and professional satellite observers from North America to Australia, while its significance was debated by military and intelligence analysts and arms control experts. Many agreed that Iran had achieved a milestone: Only 10 other countries have successfully launched satellites into orbit. Iran says it is has previously launched two satellites, but with foreign help.
The country's space, missile and nuclear programs are a source of pride for Iran but have long generated concern in the region and the West, whose leaders say Iran's government is developing the capacity to build and deliver nuclear weapons. Iran says its programs are peaceful.
While the satellite launch was not a surprise -- Iran broadcast its intentions years ago -- the event was a jarring reminder of Iran's progress in developing militarily useful technology.
The rocket used to launch the satellite was not the most sophisticated in Iran's arsenal. Iran used the two-stage Safir-2 -- Safir is a Farsi term meaning "ambassador." The Safir is based on older Russian technology, although Iran claims to have improved the design in the Safir-2, which was first tested in August and has a reported range of about 150 miles.
By contrast, Iran's sophisticated Shahab-3 missile has a range of at least 750 miles, and Iran claims to have extended its reach even farther. At minimum, the Shahab-3 would allow Iran to strike targets throughout the Middle East, Turkey and the southeastern flank of Europe.
"The launch itself was not such a significant accomplishment, but it's a reminder that the clock is ticking on Iran's nuclear program," said David Albright, a nuclear weapons expert and president of the Institute for Science and International Security.
At the same time, Albright said, the launch underscored weaknesses that Iran must still overcome in order to launch sophisticated warheads over great distances. The Safir-2 rockets "do not seem very impressive" as delivery systems for nuclear weapons, he said.
Other analysts said Iran's entry into space would further complicate the Obama administration's diplomatic efforts to curb Iran's nuclear ambitions. Leonard Spector, an Energy Department official during the Clinton administration and deputy director of the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, said President Obama may now be forced to consider pursuing the controversial missile-defense system proposed by his predecessor, George W. Bush. The system, which would be based in Poland and the Czech Republic, is firmly opposed by Russia.
In Washington, official reaction to the reported satellite launch was relatively subdued as the Obama administration prepared for its first round of talks with European partners on how to deal with Iran and its weapons programs. White House spokesman Robert Gibbs referred to the Iranian achievement only briefly at the daily news briefing, saying Iranian efforts to develop an advanced missile capability were a matter of "acute concern."
"The president is clear that he wants Iran to be a responsible member of the world community," Gibbs said. Tehran's pursuit of missile technology "does not convince us that Iran is acting responsibly to advance stability or security in the region," he said.
The launch of the Omid, or "hope," research and telecommunications satellite was hailed by Iranian leaders as proof of the country's independence despite U.N. Security Council sanctions intended to force the country to stop enriching uranium, a process Iran's leaders say they must develop in case other nations refuse to provide them with the fuel.