With Hot Peppers, the Pleasure Is in the Pain
Wednesday, February 18, 2009
Even people who are otherwise gastronomically conservative will eat chili-pepper-spiked food as if it were the most natural thing in the world.
Perhaps it is. Chilis, native to the Americas, have conquered the world in a way few other foods have. Five centuries after Columbus sampled a fiery-hot pepper on his first visit in 1492, an estimated one-third of the world's population eats chilis daily.
Everyone who loves them knows exactly why they are so popular. When we chili-heads try to explain the appeal to non-chili lovers, we talk about the different flavors of different peppers: sweet, spicy, aromatic and tangy. And it's true that there are subtle and not-so-subtle differences. But saying that is our only reason for liking them is akin to saying we drink whisky, cognac or Calvados solely for the taste.
What sets chilis apart from all other foods is the high concentration of capsaicin and related compounds. While the alcohol in liquor is a central nervous system depressant that intoxicates us, capsaicin reacts with the body's pain receptors and tells us that we have been burned. The result is that we feel pain. It could be the light tingling when our taste buds and pain receptors are triggered by a tiny amount of chili sauce on a sandwich; it could be the breathless shock of a bite into a habanero chili, one of the stronger varieties on the market.
From the plant's perspective, capsaicin is a defense against predators, a way to avoid being eaten (at least by mammals; birds don't feel the heat and help spread the seeds). So why do we eat it? Why willingly ingest something that we know will bring us pain, a sensation we normally try to avoid? Why are more than 2 billion people seemingly hooked on this culinary self-torture?
I took an early interest in the effects of capsaicin and conducted my first research, albeit inadvertently, as a teenager when I tried to taste pepper spray at a party. I was inspired by the nice little picture of a chili pepper on the label. However, the spray didn't taste like a chili; in fact, it didn't taste like anything. But it was effective nonetheless. The result was much coughing, crying and a fair amount of blame from those who thought it unwise -- some used different words -- to release pepper spray in a poorly ventilated room.
Something interesting happened as soon as the room and anger had been vented out. Despite a few red eyes, the atmosphere wasn't sad or subdued. On the contrary, what had been an ordinary, even-tempered party took on a careless, happy, almost ecstatic mood.
Many years later, as I traveled the Indian Ocean "chili belt" doing research for a book about spices, I encountered something similar. In Thailand, Mozambique and India, dinner would often follow the same route. First there was plain, hungry friendliness. Then, as the fiery chili-pepper-spiked food arrived, there would be sniffing and crying; gradually, after the meal, when people had had time to catch their breath, a new strength and contagious good humor emerged.
"We cry so that we can laugh afterwards," a man told me at an open-air market in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. He was showing me the glories of chicken piri-piri in the southern African country that is home to the piri-piri chili, an indigenized variety brought to the region by Portuguese explorers in the early 16th century. Needless to say, the dish involves large quantities of piri-piri sauce.
To chef Rochelle Schaetzl, research and development director for the South Africa-based chicken chain Nando's Peri-Peri (which spells the chili name by one of its variations), the appeal is all about the rush.
"Chili pepper eaters have a tendency to push themselves," said Schaetzl, author of "Pain & Pleasure: Peri Peri, the Contrasts and Contradictions of the African Bird's Eye Chilli" (Gwynne Conlyn Publishing, 2008). "It is not just the pain. I don't think you specifically aim for the pain. I think it is rather all the good things that happen afterwards. Among other things, eating chili peppers makes the body release endorphins."
Endorphins, natural morphine-like compounds released in response to pain, are just about the strongest drugs you can do without doing drugs. And they are in many ways a wonder drug, because they don't create an addiction (even though chili-heads and other thrill-seekers might argue with that), incapacitate you or dull your senses. Researchers say the release of endorphins probably is responsible for "runner's high" and for the rush and pain-suppressing qualities that make it possible for someone who has been in an accident to muster the strength to escape a dangerous situation.