D.C., Md., Va. Pension Plans Lose $28 Billion Since Summer

By Michael Laris
Washington Post Staff Writer
Monday, March 16, 2009

Pension plans for state and local workers in Maryland, Virginia and the District have lost more than $28 billion since last summer and have seen about a quarter of their total value vanish at a time when governments are losing billions in tax revenue to the recession.

Even as pension investments have plummeted, the plans must still cover the same number of retired teachers, police officers, custodians and tax collectors. And the plans are set up so that the size of the recipient's check won't shrink, no matter how far the markets fall.

As a result, jurisdictions will have to squeeze already-strained budgets to replenish the pension funds for future retirees. That could mean deeper cuts to spending on roads, schools and social services or an increase in taxes -- all unsavory prospects for elected officials struggling as it is to triage their spending decisions.

"The numbers are so compelling that they will not be ignored for long," said Del. Murray D. Levy (D-Charles), a member of the House committee that oversees the retirement system. Backfilling Maryland's pension investment losses would cost about $250 million a year, he estimated. "This time next year, if nothing is changed, you will see everyone running around with their hair on fire wondering, what the hell do we do now?"

Some local pensions lost between 24 and 31 percent of their value from July to the end of January, according to a Washington Post survey of a half-dozen systems covering state and local workers. Virginia's investments shrank by $14.5 billion; Maryland's, by $10.3 billion; and the District's, by $1 billion.

Pensions have long been a bedrock benefit of public employment. Workers usually pay in a percentage of their paychecks, and governments kick in another piece. Retired workers continue getting paid, depending on how many years they put in. Some gold-plated plans allow certain employees to retire at age 50. Others are less generous.

Pension officials invest in everything from broad stock market index funds and Mexican bonds to real estate holdings and Amazon.com stock. They count on hearty growth.

That's not what happened.

"It's clear 2008 was a bad year. It's pretty clear to me 2009 will be a bad year. I can't believe we're going to have a real bounce back in 2010," said Alicia H. Munnell, director of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, which tracks pensions.

State and local pensions nationwide lost $1.3 trillion since the market peaked in October 2007. That was during a period when pension officials assumed they'd grow by $300 billion. It could take decades to make that up. Even counting on big market gains, the annual tab for filling that hole will top $27 billion next year and rise to $135 billion within five years, according to the retirement research center.

"These public employees have to be paid. And so the burden rests with the taxpayer," Munnell said.

Even before the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in September gave way to months of precipitous stock market declines, concerns were being raised about whether officials were doing what was necessary to keep pensions healthy.

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