U.S. Standards Initiative Seeks to Equalize Benchmarks
Monday, October 12, 2009
The opening of Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice." Toni Morrison's 1993 Nobel lecture. Walt Whitman's poem "O Captain! My Captain!" The Declaration of Independence. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter From Birmingham Jail."
Those were among a handful of texts chosen to illustrate proposed standards for skills and knowledge that every high school graduate should have in English language arts.
And that should be the cue for another "great works" debate. Every so often, educators, politicians, parents, students and those who care about schools will tussle over lists of works deemed essential (or not) for a culturally literate young adult. It gets especially fierce when the nation's academic reputation is perceived to be at stake.
But not this time. At least not yet.
So far, there has been no uproar about texts included in (or omitted from) the standards experts proposed last month at the behest of the nation's governors and state school chiefs. That's by design. A full-blown great works debate could scuttle what is a difficult mission: to craft academic standards that can be accepted nationwide without leaving the impression that states and school boards have ceded control of what is taught.
The Common Core State Standards Initiative, as it is known, is an attempt to fashion de facto national standards for math and English without calling them that. President Obama praises it as an effort to raise and equalize the wildly uneven benchmarks among states. His administration might provide money to help states develop tests aligned with the standards, if they are adopted. But the U.S. Education Department is not drafting the standards, and Congress will have no vote on approval.
The proposal released Sept. 21 represents the first stage. In coming months, experts will work backward through secondary and elementary grades to develop more detailed benchmarks for content knowledge and skills. The goal is to lay out enough specifics to fulfill the promise for internationally competitive standards, without being so voluminous and prescriptive that states and schools have no flexibility in choosing textbooks and curriculum.
Academics and others are weighing in on the proposal posted at www.corestandards.org. On Thursday, the Washington-based Thomas B. Fordham Institute, a prominent advocate of more rigorous standards, graded the effort with a B in both subjects. That was equivalent to the grade it gave the National Assessment of Educational Progress standards in reading and writing and better than the C it gave NAEP standards in math. NAEP, a federally funded testing program, is often called the nation's report card.
The math proposal spans equations, expressions, functions, statistics and several other topics. For instance, it says students should understand four core concepts about equations and be able to exercise six core skills.
One such concept: That equations not solvable in one number system might have solutions in a larger number system. One such skill: Graphing the solution set of a linear inequality in two variables on the coordinate plane.
The English proposal avoided controversy by emphasizing four communication skills -- reading, writing, speaking and listening -- and eschewing recommendations on must-read books. "Those decisions are local control issues," said Scott Montgomery, deputy executive director of the Council of Chief State School Officers.
"They were wise to leave it to others," said Chester E. Finn Jr., president of the Fordham Institute. "They would have gotten into a century-long battle over reading lists, multiculturalism, which authors to read and so on. They decided to duck that."