Correction to This Article
This article about China's aggressive investment in high-speed rail said that China's trains are the world's fastest. The article should have specified that China's conventional high-speed trains are the fastest. That category does not include maglev, a technology that uses powerful magnets to float a wheel-less train just above the track and propel it at high speed. Japan has the world's fastest maglev trains, followed by Shanghai. Although Shanghai's maglev to the airport can travel as fast as 267 mph, China limits the top speed to about 187 mph during peak hours.

China is pulling ahead in worldwide race for high-speed rail transportation

By Keith B. Richburg
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, May 12, 2010

QINGDAO, CHINA -- Last year, China surpassed the United States as the world's largest automaker. The country is aggressively making jets to compete with Boeing and Airbus. And in recent years, with little outside notice, China made another great leap forward in transportation: It now leads the world in high-speed rail.

High-speed trains were once the preserve of Japan, with its "bullet train," and France, with its TGV. But China's trains are the world's fastest, its network of tracks the longest and its expansion plans the most ambitious. By 2012, just four years after it began its first high-speed passenger service, China will have more high-speed train tracks than the rest of the world combined.

After years of major investment in highways, China is now investing billions in a cutting-edge network of trains and subways designed to boost exports and revolutionize the flow of people and goods in the world's fastest-rising economic powerhouses.

"Just like our investment in the highway system in the 1950s and the rail system in the late 1800s, this will pay huge dividends for China to years to come," said Tim Schweikert, chief executive of GE Transportation China, which signed a deal last year to invest in China's rail expansion in exchange for using Chinese trains and technology to bid on high-speed rail projects in the United States.

Chinese officials said exporting to the United States is part of a broader goal of becoming the chief high-speed train supplier to the world, as well as serving China's vast domestic market.

China's state-owned CSR Sifang has had interest from customers in Thailand, Singapore, the Middle East, as well as the United States, said Gong Ming, chief engineer at CSR's sprawling plant in the city of Qingdao.

A lot of interest

China is one of several countries, including Japan and France, interested in the U.S. high-speed rail market. China is trying to sweeten its bid by offering low-interest financing. And to counter resistance to Chinese incursion into the railway business, the GE deal stipulates that the locomotive components would be 80 percent American and 20 percent Chinese, and all of the final assembly would be done in the United States.

Many of China's high-speed trains are assembled in Qingdao, an industrial city facing the Yellow Sea, in a plant with more than 7,000 workers, including about 2,000 research and design engineers. The plant rolls out 200 sets of sleek new white bullet trains each year, each train set capable of traveling at 217 mph.

In one workshop, which employees call "secret," development is underway on the next-generation train that will travel even faster, taking the world's top passenger speed to 236 mph. The first prototype is scheduled for testing in weeks.

Next year, when a new Beijing-to-Shanghai high-speed line will open (a year ahead of schedule), those fast trains will cut to just four hours the travel time for the 600-mile journey between China's two most important cities.

Trains are creating competition with airlines: After a high-speed train route opened last year between Zhengzhou and Xi'an, airlines stopped all flights between the cities. Travelers preferred a two-hour train ride that cost $57 to a 40-minute flight that cost $73.

Most striking about China's emergence in the high-speed train field is that it is all relatively new; the country's first passenger train to top 186 mph, from Beijing to Tianjin, began operating in 2008. That was about the time that President Obama, then still a senator campaigning for office, was bemoaning the fact that the United States had fallen behind.

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