Norman A. Graebner; David E. Apter; Adele Mara
Adele Mara Actress
Adele Mara, 87, who acted in film and television roles opposite John Wayne, Roy Rogers and Gene Autry, died May 7 at her home in Pacific Palisades, Calif. The cause of death was not disclosed.
Ms. Mara's many credits included the film "Sands of Iwo Jima" (1949) with Wayne, "You Were Never Lovelier" (1942) with Rita Hayworth and "Angel in Exile" (1948).
She was born Adelaide Delgado in Highland Park, Mich. She started dancing as a youth and was discovered by bandleader Xavier Cugat.
She moved with her parents to Philadelphia to dance with Cugat's band, then went to Hollywood and began working in movies regularly in the 1940s.
Norman A. Graebner U.-Va. Historian
Norman A. Graebner, 94, who shaped the field of diplomatic history with his critiques of American foreign policy, died May 10 at the Colonnades retirement community in Charlottesville after a stroke.
Dr. Graebner was a professor of history at the University of Virginia from 1967 to 1982 and an emeritus professor thereafter. He taught at a number of schools, including the University of Illinois and Iowa State University.
He was a leading contributor to the realist critique of American diplomacy, which holds that foreign policy decisions are flawed when they rely on ideologies and public opinion rather than on realistic national interests.
He wrote and edited more than 20 books, including "Cold War Diplomacy: American Foreign Policy, 1945-1960" (1962), "The National Security: Its Theory and Practice, 1945-1960" (1986) and "Empire on the Pacific" (1955), in which he argued that America's westward expansion was due less to Manifest Destiny than to efforts to control West Coast ports.
David E. Apter Yale Political Scientist
David E. Apter, 85, a Yale University professor who used the tools of political science and sociology to study the modernization and democratization of developing countries, died May 4 of cancer at his home in North Haven, Conn.
Dr. Apter did field work in Asia, Africa and Latin America. He interviewed the citizens and leaders of nations in the midst of sometimes-violent transitions and developed general theories about the problems countries face as they develop.
He wrote or co-wrote more than 20 books, notably "The Gold Coast in Transition" (1955), "The Politics of Modernization" (1965) and "Political Change: Collected Essays" (1973).
He taught at the University of Chicago, Northwestern University and the University of California at Berkeley before coming to Yale in 1969.
-- From news services and staff reports