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Afghan President Karzai approves plan for local defense forces
Some lawmakers have asked why the massive civilian program is necessary if the goal is to destroy Pakistan-based al-Qaeda. Even those who are largely supportive of the effort, such as Kerry, have raised increasingly public concerns.
One anticipated bright spot is an international conference next week in Kabul, where Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and representatives of dozens of other nations will gather to hear Karzai's plans for reintegrating low-level Taliban fighters who agree to leave the fight as well as for combating government corruption and other initiatives.
Karzai and Gen. David H. Petraeus, the new U.S. and NATO commander in Afghanistan, are expected to unveil the new community defense initiative. Winning Karzai's approval for the program was a top initial goal for Petraeus, who took command of coalition forces this month. But an early meeting between the two turned tense over the issue as Karzai renewed objections that he had expressed when the plan was first raised by Petreaus's predecessor, Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal.
Karzai and some of his security ministers had voiced concerns that villagers, once armed by the government, would operate as militias. In the 1990s, after Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan, the country was racked by fighting among rival militias.
U.S. military officials said the program would be modeled on a set of local defense units, called the Afghan Public Protection Police, created in the past year in Wardak province by U.S. Special Forces. That effort has achieved mixed results, several military sources said, but it has been regarded as the most palatable of the various local security initiatives pushed by the U.S. military because its members wear uniforms and report to the Interior Ministry.
"It's a community watch on steroids," said a U.S. military official in Kabul. "The goal is to create an environment that will be inhospitable to lawlessness, to reduce the number of places where insurgents can operate."
The official said members will carry weapons and will be authorized to guard their communities. They will be trained by the Special Forces, but they will not be instructed in offensive actions, the official said.
"We'll be following a well-known concept," said the senior Afghan government official. "This is not a militia -- no way."
At the Pentagon, spokesman Geoff Morrell called the plan a "stopgap measure" while the Afghan national police force is being expanded and trained. The community defense force, he said, would be a "temporary solution to a very real, near-term problem . . . because we clearly do not have enough police forces to provide security in enough of the populated areas."
Aside from the public-protection units in Wardak, there are more than a dozen village-level defense squads that have been formed by the Special Forces in parts of southern and eastern Afghanistan. The village-level squads had been deemed by some military commanders to be more effective than those in Wardak because residents regard them as community-generated and more worthy of support than forces created by the national government, which many Afghans view with suspicion.
A U.S. official familiar with the program said that the parameters of the new program were not finalized yet and that the military hoped they would be flexible enough to continue the defense squad initiative and proceed with plans to expand it.
Correspondent Joshua Partlow in Kabul contributed to this report.