The road to more fuel-efficient cars is the one less taken by consumers AND automakers
Thursday, September 30, 2010
As the U.S. seeks to reduce oil consumption, not all the news is bad: For years, automakers have been selling Americans cars with ever more efficient engines. In fact, a car purchased today is able to extract nearly twice as much power from a gallon of gas as its counterpart did 25 years ago.
The trouble is that over the same period, cars have become bigger and more powerful. As a result, the average mileage of the cars and light trucks on the road in the United States has barely budged since 1985.
"Automakers have been improving efficiency for years," said John DeCicco, a University of Michigan senior lecturer who studies the issue. "But those gains haven't gone into fuel economy. They've gone into giving consumers cars with greater size and muscle."
The next few weeks will mark the formal beginning of the debate over the next round of federal fuel economy standards. And as the negotiations among environmentalists, bureaucrats and the automakers get underway, a fundamental question over how best to wean the nation's drivers from oil dependency will dominate the discussion: Does the responsibility for reducing oil consumption lie with the automakers -- or with their customers, the American public?
Although the efficiency standards are imposed on automakers who are required to produce vehicles that achieve a certain level of miles per gallon, they must in turn sell them to a public often more focused on size and design than the allure of fuel economy.
"Right now, my customers will give up 5 mpg in fuel economy for a better cup holder," said Mike Jackson, the chief executive of AutoNation, the largest auto retailer in the country.
Rather than strengthening the fuel economy standards, he advocates a tax on gasoline that would make his customers value fuel economy. Because gas tax proposals have gathered only scant political support, however, for now many environmental groups and others pushing for energy security pin their hopes on further increases in fuel economy requirements.
The most recent round of standards, which were announced earlier this year, set levels expected to achieve an average of about 34 mpg by 2016 for all new cars and light trucks through annual improvements of about 4 percent.
The set of requirements now being discussed would cover new cars from 2016 through 2025, and already some environmental groups have called for a goal of 60 mpg for new cars and light trucks.
"We believe that with a mix of hybrids, electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engines that that number is achievable," said Brendan Bell, vehicles lobbyist for the Union of Concerned Scientists, which proposed the goal with other environmental organizations.
But like some others in the industry, Jackson said that the idea of achieving 60 mpg is "detached from reality" and that one of the reasons is consumers won't tolerate the sacrifices in design and the additional costs to reach that standard.
He likened selling fuel efficient cars to selling broccoli when what everyone wants to eat is donuts.