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Ehud Netzer, Israeli archaeologist who discovered Herod's tomb, dies at 76

By Matti Friednan
Friday, October 29, 2010; 10:17 PM

Ehud Netzer, an Israeli archaeologist best known for excavating King Herod's winter palace and discovering the monarch's tomb there, died Oct. 28 at a hospital in Jerusalem after falling at the site. He was 76.

Mr. Netzer was speaking with colleagues at the site Oct. 24 when a wooden safety railing broke and he fell several yards, suffering critical injuries, according to David Amit, a senior archaeologist at the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Mr. Netzer led numerous high-profile digs over decades of work in a country where the ancient past plays a central part in national life and where archaeologists have sometimes become leading public figures.

Mr. Netzer's discoveries helped expand modern understanding of ancient Israel and especially of Herod, the extravagant Jewish proxy ruler who controlled the Holy Land under imperial Roman occupation two millennia ago.

Beginning in the 1960s, Mr. Netzer took part in the excavation of Masada, one of Israel's most famous digs. There, archaeologists revealed the scene of a standoff between Roman legionnaires and Jewish rebels after the destruction of the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem - also built by Herod - in 70 A.D. The siege famously ended when the Jews committed mass suicide.

But he was best known for excavating Herodion, Herod's winter palace, in a largely man-made hill in the West Bank near the Palestinian city of Bethlehem. In 2007, after 35 years of work, he discovered what he identified as Herod's tomb, shedding new light on the king and drawing international attention.

Mr. Netzer's team unearthed limestone fragments from an ornately carved sarcophagus with decorative urns of a type never before found in the Holy Land. In keeping with Jewish tradition, it was not decorated with any human image.

In an interview with the Associated Press in 2008, Mr. Netzer described the palace as a kind of "country club," with a pool, baths, gardens, aqueducts and a large theater. He last spoke to the AP in September, when he uncovered a lavishly decorated theater box there.

Herod the Great was the father of Herod Antipas, the ruler from the New Testament's account of the lives of Jesus and John the Baptist.

Mr. Netzer helped shape Israeli archaeology by leading some of the country's biggest and most important digs and educating young archaeologists as a professor at Hebrew University, Amit said.

"Ehud Netzer was a combination of a first-class field archaeologist, an architect who could grasp the big picture of landscape and monumental buildings, and a man with the rare organizational abilities necessary to carry out excavations of great size," Amit said.

- Associated Press

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