The stories behind the Civil War's famous names
1. Ulysses S. Grant
The military architect of the Union's triumph
In 1860, he was a 38-year-old West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican War, but he had resigned from the Army six years before, lonely, depressed and alcoholic. A failed farmer who had once built a house called Hardscrabble, he had lately sold firewood on the streets of St. Louis and worked as a rent collector. He was now clerking in his father's leather goods store in Galena, Ill., where he did not own a horse.
2. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
One of the Confederate army's most brilliant generals
He was a 36-year-old, deeply religious and somewhat quarrelsome West Point graduate and Mexican War veteran who had left the Army to take a job as a professor at the Virginia Military Institute. In 1859, he led a contingent of VMI cadets to provide security at the hanging of the Harpers Ferry abolitionist John Brown. Jackson noted that Brown behaved with "unflinching firmness."
3. Robert E. Lee
The legendary commander of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia
A colonel in the United States Army, he, too, was a veteran of the Mexican War, in which he had been wounded. A former superintendent at West Point, he had led the government forces that captured John Brown at Harpers Ferry. But in 1860 he was stationed in far-off Texas, where he chased bandits and Indians and missed his large family back home at Arlington House, across the Potomac from Washington. He was 53, believed that his career had stalled and saw himself as a failure.
4. Walt Whitman
The poet of the Civil War
The former printer and newspaper editor was 41 and an established writer and commentator living in Brooklyn. In 1860 the third edition of his book "Leaves of Grass" was published, expanded from 12 poems to more than 150. Drawn by the great cataclysm of his generation, he would soon move to Washington, minister to the wounded and steep himself in the war's grandeur and suffering.
5. Frederick Douglass
The renowned abolitionist and former Maryland slave
Age 42 in 1860, he was back home in Rochester, N.Y., after fleeing to Canada and England in the wake of John Brown's doomed raid on Harpers Ferry. Brown had been Douglass's friend and confidant and had written his revolutionary "constitution" in Douglass's home. Lincoln's election, Douglass later wrote, was "a glorious assertion of freedom and independence on the part of North."
6. Jefferson Davis
Soon to be the Confederacy's first and only president
In 1860 he was a former secretary of war and a former regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and was serving as a U.S. senator from Mississippi. A graduate of West Point and a combat-wounded veteran of the Mexican War, at 52, he believed in states' rights but thought secession would be reckless.