In Green Zone, an icy challenge to U.S. power

Washington Post Staff Writer
Monday, December 20, 2010

BAGHDAD - In the heart of Baghdad's Green Zone, just yards from the mighty fortress of the biggest U.S. embassy in the world, a small but symbolic challenge to America's rapidly waning influence in Iraq is taking shape in the form of an Iranian ice cream parlor.

Ice Pack, an aggressive new franchise that proclaims its intent to challenge U.S. fast-food hegemony worldwide, will open its Green Zone branch in January, said Ali Hazem Haideri, the shop's Iraqi manager. The building is under construction, but when complete, it will offer customers a choice of 34 ice cream flavors, along with a front-row view of the comings and goings of the heavily armored convoys that whisk U.S. officials through the blast walls protecting the embassy nearby.

Next door is the fast-fading Freedom Restaurant, named in honor of the U.S.-led invasion and aimed at U.S. soldiers and contractors. These days, American customers are rare, and the restaurant mostly caters to Iraqi government workers who come to eat chicken and kebabs on plastic tablecloths under flickering neon lights.

It's a vivid reminder of the shifting balance of power here as the U.S. military winds down its presence and prepares to go home. Even the Green Zone, once an outpost of Americana in a chaotic Iraq, is no longer a U.S. zone of influence. The United States handed over control to Iraqi security forces last June, along with responsibility for issuing the coveted badges that allow access to the walled enclave, relinquishing the ability to control who may come and go.

In the long-deadlocked process of government formation, it was Iran, not America, that brokered the deal that enabled Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki to keep his job, by exerting pressure on anti-U.S. cleric Muqtada al-Sadr to accept Maliki for a second term, leaving both men beholden to their powerful neighbor.

Simply by being next door, Iran wields leverage in Iraq that the United States cannot hope to enjoy. Hundreds of thousands of Iranians visit Iraq's holy Shiite shrines every year, Iranian goods flow freely across the border and Iraqi politicians are acutely aware that they will have to continue dealing with Iran, with which Iraq fought an eight-year war in the 1980s, long after U.S. troops have gone home.

A foothold in Iraq

Meanwhile, as Ice Pack expands across Iraq, there are no plans to open Baghdad branches of McDonald's, Starbucks, Burger King or any of the other U.S. brand names that are entrenched in most other countries in the region.

Haideri, 22, and his business associate, Hadi Laith, 23, who owns the Ice Pack franchise for Iraq, said they would have preferred an American partner.

"We wanted to open a McDonald's here, but we were afraid someone would blow it up," Haideri said over large paper cups filled with chocolate ice cream, fruit and whipped cream, Ice Pack's specialty, at the chain's first Baghdad outlet in the busy Karradah neighborhood.

"A lot of Iraqis want to try new products, and McDonald's is really enthusiastic to come here because they know if they come they will make a fortune. But Iraqis are too scared."

"Iran is easy," added Laith, who bought the Ice Pack franchise in 2008 for $800,000 after negotiating for several weeks with McDonald's representatives in Jordan. "Transportation is easy. Customs are easy. McDonald's had very exacting demands, and they wanted $4 million."

In some ways, Ice Pack's push into the Green Zone is more of a snub than a challenge. Iranian-made ice cream is a lesser threat to U.S. officials than the Iranian-made rockets, fired by Iranian-trained and funded militias, that periodically crash into the embassy and its environs.

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