Consumer Reports Insights: Treatment options for men with prostate cancer
Every year, nearly 218,000 U.S. men learn they have prostate cancer. The condition is usually diagnosed early, when it's most treatable, and better detection and treatment have decreased the death rate. But patients and their doctors need to decide how aggressively to treat the early-stage cancer.
Most prostate cancers are so unaggressive that one option is to simply monitor the tumor and start treatment if it progresses. But in a study of 124,000 men published last year in the Archives of Internal Medicine, three of four of those with early-stage cancer chose radiation or surgery, both of which can cause impotence, incontinence or both.
Patients often choose aggressive treatments for good reasons, including reassurance. But incomplete, confusing or in some cases biased information from their doctors also influences their decision.
First, get informed. Few medical decisions are as tough as those facing a man with prostate cancer. There's no shortage of treatments, including surgery performed with or without robotic assistance, and radiation delivered by an external beam or by radioactive seeds implanted inside the body.
But it's hard to compare safety and effectiveness. And because experts say that most prostate cancers are extremely slow-growing and might not pose a serious threat, many men might be better off deferring treatment.
Know your risk
To guide your decision, it's important to understand whether you have a low-, medium- or high-risk tumor. Risk is typically based on three factors: levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood, the size and extent of the tumor, and a rating of the tumor pathology called the Gleason score.
Small tumors that are confined to the prostate gland combined with low PSA levels (10 nanograms per milliliter or less) and low Gleason scores (six or lower) indicate a low-risk tumor that can make watchful waiting, also called active surveillance, a reasonable choice. If you have a medium- or high-risk tumor, treatment might be more appropriate - if you understand and accept the likely adverse effects of both radiation and surgery.
Robotic surgery provides no guarantee of fewer complications. And marketing hype might fuel unreasonable expectations. In a Duke University study, dissatisfaction was three to four times higher among those treated by robot-assisted surgery than among those treated by traditional surgery, even though rates of troublesome side effects were about the same.
l 10-year cancer death rate: About 3 percent for low-risk tumors; about 5 percent for intermediate-risk tumors
l Long-term adverse effects: Anxiety from uncertain cancer status