Daniel Bell, 91; sociologist foresaw the rise of the Internet
Thursday, January 27, 2011; 1:23 AM
Daniel Bell, a wide-ranging scholar and writer who coined the terms "post-industrial" and "the information society" and who predicted the collapse of communism, the rise of the Internet and other significant trends in economics and culture long before they occurred, died Jan. 25 at his home in Cambridge, Mass. He was 91. The cause of death was not disclosed.
Dr. Bell trained as a sociologist and was a professor at Columbia and Harvard universities. He was among the country's first "public intellectuals," whose impact reached far beyond academia. His portfolio roamed freely across many fields, including politics, economics, history, education, cultural studies and religion.
As early as 1967, when home computers were mere fantasies, Dr. Bell had foreseen the rise of the Internet. He imagined "tens of thousands of terminals in homes and offices 'hooked' into giant central computers providing library and information services, retail ordering and billing services, and the like."
In one of his most influential books, 1973's "The Coming of Post-Industrial Society," Dr. Bell said the computer would come to define the late 20th century as much as the automobile had the first half of the century.
He foretold "the pre-eminence of the professional and technical class" and growing global economic competition as manufacturing gave way to an international economy built on technology and services. With less emphasis on manual labor, Dr. Bell added, it was only a matter of time before communism and other Marxist ideologies fell under their own weight.
Two of his other books, "The End of Ideology" (1960) and "Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism" (1978), were cited by the Times Literary Supplement, a British publication, as among the 100 most influential books written since World War II.
In the latter book, Dr. Bell argued that the self-indulgent societies created by free markets and easy credit undercut the capitalist system itself and its purported values of discipline and restraint.
"Hedonism has replaced the old bourgeois value of delayed gratification," he said in 1989.
In "The End of Ideology," Dr. Bell suggested that political systems based on fixed intellectual notions - Marxism, in particular - were fading in importance and would be replaced by more pragmatic forms of belief.
"A utopia has to specify where one wants to go, how to get there, the costs of the enterprise, and some realization of and justification for the determination of who is to pay," he wrote.
In 1999, the Economist magazine named Dr. Bell "America's most eminent post-war social theorist," but for all his pronouncements on social trends and public policy, his personal views were hard to pin down.
At 13, he had given speeches in support of socialist presidential candidate Norman Thomas. But in his first book, "Marxian Socialism in the United States" (1952), he argued that the views of socialists were simply too rigid to gain a large following in freewheeling America.