Maryland county caught up in fight over energy extraction method
In their sliver of western Maryland, Garrett County residents like to boast of night skies so clear that you can see satellites lumber across the heavens, a picturesque deep creek that is the state's largest inland body of water, and adventure tourism that Indiana Jones types love.
But land speculators who showed up in the county in 2008 with offers to lease farm acres had other interests. Their eyes were set on a valuable resource deep underground: natural gas deposits buried in thick layers of Marcellus Shale, a black, organic-rich shale found under the Appalachian region.
And just like that, Garrett County, population 29,000, became fully engaged in the nation's debate over hydraulic drilling for natural gas and its risk of contaminating drinking water, joining another Washington-area local government, Rockingham County, Va.
The American Petroleum Institute maintains that hydraulic drilling is safe, "a tried-and-true technology that promises thousands of new jobs and vast and indispensable supplies of clean-burning energy," said Carlton Carroll, a spokesman.
But American Rivers, an environmental conservation group, advises caution. Hydraulic drilling, which releases natural gas by shattering shale with high-pressure bursts of millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals, "creates a very briny wastewater" that can flow back to the surface and leak into sources of drinking water, said Jessie Thomas-Blate, who monitors endangered rivers for the group.
"It's an issue for the Chesapeake Bay that impacts Washington, D.C.," Thomas-Blate said. "If you contaminate people's water, you can't go back."
As a result of studies and exploration, estimates of the nation's gas reserves are twice as large as those a year ago, according to the Energy Department, larger even than Russia's giant reserves, prompting experts to call the United States the Saudi Arabia of natural gas. West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio lie over extensive shale formations, and small areas of Maryland and Virginia do as well.
There were nearly 20,000 shale wells in the United States in 2007, with a record 4,000 built in that year alone, an increase of 75 percent since 2000, according to the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
But concerns over vertical wells and newly developed horizontal fracturing, a method by which drills go straight down and then sideways, have steadily grown.
Maryland recently declined to issue permits to Chief Oil & Gas and to Samson Resources to drill in Garrett County, opting to wait for improved drilling technology that protects the environment. The decision played a role in prompting the companies to cancel land leases worth millions of dollars to area farmers, county officials said.
Virginia officials gave one oil and gas company the go-ahead to drill a single exploratory well in Rockingham County, population 74,000. In doing so, the state Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy looked past the reservations expressed by the county commissioner, who feared that the chemicals used to fracture the rock would taint streams that shelter protected species and trout that draw fishermen.
"This thing happens to be in the district I represent," said Pablo Cuevas, chairman of the county Board of Supervisors. Gas companies had 6,000 acres under lease in the county, but they "selected a site in the flood plain with a stream leading to the Shenandoah River that leads to the Chesapeake Bay," Cuevas said.