Downtime: It's Enough to Make Some People Sick
Some Research Suggests Illness Goes Up When the Stress of Work Goes Down. Skeptics Are Immune to This Theory.
Tuesday, December 25, 2007; Page HE06
Bing Crosby was a wishful thinker. All his dreaming of a white Christmas, merry and bright, hid what the holidays often are to many busy people: sickening. But it may not be the eggnog, the endless holiday music or even the pounds of sugar cookies that are making you ill. It may be the same thing that seems to set you back when you finally head for a weekend of winter sports or jet off for a week on the beach: You're off work.
Ad Vingerhoets, an associate professor of clinical health psychology at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, calls it "leisure sickness." Just when you take a break from your busy schedule to enjoy a little relaxation, your leisure time becomes anything but -- full of aches and pains, cold- and flulike symptoms and other health complaints.
"The simple idea we have -- that when you are busy, your body is activated, and when you are not busy and have nothing to do, your body is relaxed -- is simply not the whole story," Vingerhoets said. "For some people, [a holiday or vacation] seems to be pathogenic."
Sure, some say this is pop psychology, and there are experts who are skeptical. However, even some who dismiss leisure sickness as a wastebasket diagnosis concede there is science to support the idea that unwinding is difficult for many of us.
The underlying cause of the problem, according to Vingerhoets, appears to have a lot to do with stress. He has been fielding calls about the theory since 2001, when his team of researchers reported on their survey of 1,893 Dutch people in which about 3 percent of respondents indicated that they seldom felt ill during work days but got sick during weekends and vacations. Many attributed their symptoms to difficulties transitioning from work to non-work, to stress associated with travel and to balancing a heavy workload.
Respondents who identified themselves as workaholics or perfectionists tended to have a much harder time relaxing than others.
Most explanations for the phenomenon remain unproven, however.
Paul J. Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress in Yonkers, N.Y., and a professor of medicine and psychiatry at New York Medical College who has been involved in stress research for more than 50 years, is one of the skeptics. An inability to relax on vacations and holidays has long been a well-known characteristic of Type A behavior, he says.
Leisure represents a time when they are not in control, Rosch explains; the headaches, nausea and fatigue they might experience are a response to this stress. "It's all psychosomatic . . . not a bona fide diagnosis," he said.
But Esther Sternberg, a researcher of neuroendocrine immunology at the National Institutes of Health, disagrees. Sternberg, the author of "The Balance Within: The Science Connecting Health and Emotions," calls leisure sickness a real condition, tied to the release of hormones under stress and their interaction with the nervous and immune systems.
In times of stress, the body's adrenal glands release adrenaline, which makes the heart beat faster and causes you to feel sweaty and anxious. Adrenaline gives a boost to the immune system, the body's defense against infection, Sternberg said. But while adrenaline is pumping, so is cortisol -- a potent anti-inflammatory hormone also released by the adrenal glands.