|KEY PLAYERS |
FINANCIAL PLAYERS | POLITICAL PLAYERS
Kenneth L. Lay, former Enron Chairman and CEO (resigned Jan. 23, 2002)
With the exception of a six-month period in 2001 when he relinquished the CEO title to his successor, Jeffrey Skilling, Lay held the top two positions in the company since February 1986 until January 2002. Lay was named to the position of CEO in February 1986, following the merger of Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, Inc. in July 1985.
Andrew Fastow, former Enron Chief Financial Officer (ousted Oct. 24, 2001)
Fastow was named CFO in March 1998. Prior to that he was senior vice president of finance.
Michael J. Kopper, former Enron director in global finance unit
Kopper and his domestic partner, William D. Dodson, reaped $10.5 million based on a $125,000 investment in a partnership called Chewco, according to an investigative report issued by Enron's board of directors.
Kopper left the company in June 2001 and separately collected hundreds of thousands of dollars in salary and bonuses during his seven-year tenure at Enron - as well as six-figure annual fees for managing the partnerships.
In August 2002, Kopper pleaded guilty to financial wrongdoing and agreed to surrender $12 million in the first criminal case against a company official.
Kopper, 37, is a native of New York's Long Island who attended Duke University and the London School of Economics.
Greg Whalley, former Enron President and Chief Operating Officer (resigned Jan. 28, 2002)
Whalley was president and chief operating officer of Enron Wholesale Services. He joined Enron in 1992. Whalley holds a bachelor's degree from The United States Military Academy and an MBA from the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
Jeffrey Skilling, former Enron Chief Executive Officer (resigned Aug. 14, 2001)
Skilling served as the CEO of Enron for six months in 2001 before resigning for personal reasons. He joined Enron in 1990 after leading McKinsey & Company's energy and chemical consulting practices. He became president and COO in December 1996 and served on the company's board of directors
J. Clifford Baxter, former Enron Vice Chairman (resigned May 2, 2001)
Baxter was one of 29 former and current Enron executives and board members named as defendants in a federal lawsuit, after he sold 577,436 shares of Enron for $35.2 million before Enron's collapse.
Baxter resigned as vice chairman on May 2, 2001 and at the time was credited for helping build Enron's wholesale business. He was found shot to death in a car Jan. 15, 2002, in an apparent suicide.
Wendy L. Gramm, Enron Director
Before joining the Mercatus Center at George Mason University as the director of regulatory studies, Gramm served as chairman of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission from 1988-1993. She was administrator for information and regulatory affairs at the Office of Management and Budget from 1985-1988, the executive director of the Presidential Task Force on Regulatory Relief, and director of the Federal Trade Commission's Bureau of Economics.
Sherron Watkins, former Enron Vice President for Corporate Development
Arthur Andersen questioned Enron about debt transferred to partnerships.
Arthur Andersen fired lead Enron auditor David Duncan after learning that he ordered the shredding of documents related to the audit. An attorney for a former employee has alleged that Enron workers continued shredding documents as recently as the second week of January.
Led by then-chief executive Joseph F. Berardino, Arthur Andersen took its case public, saying it would take "all appropriate steps" to defend its integrity. Berardino also suggested that the company might stop selling consulting services to firms it audits. Barardino has since resigned from the firm.
FINANCIAL PLAYERS | POLITICAL PLAYERS