III. Summary of Facts Pertaining to "Renewing American Civilization"
A. GENESIS OF THE RENEWING AMERICAN CIVILIZATION MOVEMENT AND COURSE
In his interview with the Special Counsel, Mr. Gingrich said the idea for the course was first developed while he was meeting with Owen Roberts, a GOPAC Charter Member and advisor, for two days in December of 1992. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 11-12, 23-24; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 23-24; Ex. 42, GOPAC2 2492). Mr. Gingrich wrote out notes at this meeting and they were distributed to some of his advisors. (Ex. 42, HAN 02103-02125; 6/26/96 Hanser Tr. 28; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 24-25; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 108-109). A review of those notes indicates that the topic of discussion at this meeting centered mostly on a political movement. The notes contain limited references to a course and those are in the context of a means to communicate the message of the movement.
The movement was to develop a message and then disseminate and teach that message. (Ex. 42, HAN 02109). One of the important aspects of the movement was the creation of "disseminating groups and [a] system of communication and education." (Ex. 42, HAN 02109). It also sought to "professionalize" the House Republicans by using the "message to attract voters, resources and candidates" and develop a "mechanism for winning seats." (Ex. 42, HAN 02110). The ultimate goal of the movement was to replace the welfare state with an opportunity society, and all efforts had to be exclusively directed to that goal. (Ex. 42, HAN 02119). Ultimately, it was envisioned that "a Republican majority [would be] the heart of the American Movement . . . ." (Ex. 42, HAN 02117). Mr. Gingrich's role in this movement was to be the "advocate of civilization," the "definer of civilization," the "teacher of the rules of civilization," the "arouser of those who form civilization," the "organizer of the pro-civilization activists," and the "leader (possibly) of the civilizing forces." (Ex. 42, HAN 02104). In doing this, he intended to "retain a primary focus on elected political power as the central arena and fulcrum by which a free people debate their future and govern themselves." (Ex. 42, HAN 02104). The support systems for this movement included GOPAC, some Republican international organizations, and possibly a foundation. (Ex. 42, HAN 02121). There was substantial discussion of how to disseminate the message of the movement. (Ex. 42, HAN 02109, 02110, 02111). Some of the methods discussed for this dissemination included, "Possibly a series of courses with audio and videotape followons"/"Possibly a text-book (plus audio, video, computer) series"/"Campus (intellectual) appearances on 'the histories' Gingrich the Historian applying the lessons of history to public life." (Ex. 2, HAN 02118). One of the tasks listed for 1993 is "Design vision and its communication and communicate it with modification after feedback." (Ex. 2, HAN 02120). According to Mr. Gingrich, the course was to be a subset of the movement and was to be a primary and essential means for developing and disseminating the message of the movement. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 42, 58; 11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 126-127).
Another description of the Renewing American Civilization movement is found in notes of a speech Mr. Gingrich gave on January 23, 1993, to the National Review Institute. (Ex. 44, PFF 14473-14477, PFF 38279-38288). In those notes, Mr. Gingrich wrote that "our generation's rendezvous with history is to launch a movement to renew American civilization." (Ex. 44, PFF 14474). He noted that a majority of Americans favor renewing American civilization and that "[w]e are ready to launch a 21st century conservatism that will renew American civilization, transform America from a welfare state into an opportunity society and create a conservative governing majority." (Ex. 44, PFF 14475). Mr. Gingrich then goes on to describe the five pillars of American civilization and the three areas where the movement needs to offer solutions. He then wrote that if they develop solutions for those three areas they "will decisively trump the left. At that point either Clinton will adopt our solutions or the country will fire the president who subsidizes decay and blocks progress." (Ex. 44, PFF 14476). The notes end with the following:
We must renew American civilization by studying these principles, networking success stories, applying these success stories to develop programs that will lead to dramatic progress, and then communicating these principles and these opportunities so the American people have a clear choice between progress, renewal, prosperity, safety and freedom within America [sic] civilization versus decay, decline, economic weakness, violent crime and bureaucratic dominance led by a multicultural elite.(Ex. 44, PFF 14477). (Emphasis in the original).
Given that choice, our movement for renewing American civilization will not just win the White House in 1996, we will elect people at all levels dedicated to constructive proposals.
In a draft document entitled "Renewing American Civilization Vision Statement," written by Mr. Gingrich and dated March 19, 1993, he again described the movement in partisan terms and emphasized that it needed to communicate the vision of renewing American civilization on very large scale. (Ex. 46, WGC 00163-00171, WGC 00172-00191). He wrote that renewing American civilization will require "a new party system so we can defeat the Democratic machine and transform American society into a more productive, responsible, safe country by replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society." (Ex. 46, WGC 00163).
B. ROLE OF THE COURSE IN THE MOVEMENT
Mr. Gingrich was asked about the role of the course in the movement. He said that the course was "the only way actually to develop and send . . . out" the message of the movement. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 42). In a later interview, he modified this statement to say that the course was "clearly the primary and dominant method; it was not the only way one could have done it. But I think it was essential to do it, to have the course." (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 126-127).
The earliest known documentary reference to the course in the context of the movement is in an agenda for a meeting held on February 15, 1993, at GOPAC's offices. The meeting had two agenda items: "I. General Planning/Renewing American Civilization" and "II. Political/GOPAC Issues." (Ex. 47, JR-0000645-0000647). Under the first category, one topic listed is "American Civilization Class/Uplink." (Ex. 47, JR-0000645). Under the second category two of the items listed are "GOPAC Political Plan & Schedule" and "Charter Meeting Agenda." (Ex. 47, JR-0000645). Attached to the agenda for this meeting is a "Mission Statement" written by Mr. Gingrich which applied to the overall Renewing American Civilization movement, including the course. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 248-249; 7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 145-146). It states:
We will develop a movement to renew American Civilization using the 5 pillars of 21st Century Freedom so people understand freedom and progress is possible and their practical, daily lives can be far better. * As people become convinced American civilization must and can be renewed and the 5 pillars will improve their lives we will encourage them and help them to network together and independently, autonomously initiate improvements wherever they want. However, we will focus on economic growth, health, and saving the inner city as the first three key areas to improve. Our emphasis will be on reshaping law and government to facilitate improvement in all of [A]merican society. We will emphasize elections, candidates and politics as vehicles for change and the news media as a primary vehicle for communications. To the degree Democrats agree with our goals we will work with them but our emphasis is on the Republican Party as the primary vehicle for renewing American civilization.(Ex. 47, JR-0000646).
* Renewing American Civilization must be communicated as an intellectual-cultural message with governmental-political consequences. (footnote in original)
In February 1993, Mr. Gingrich first approached Mr. Mescon about teaching the course at KSC. (Ex. 48, Mescon 0278; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 26-27). Mr. Gingrich had talked to Dr. Mescon in October or November of 1992 about the general subject of teaching, but there was no mention of the Renewing American Civilization course at that time. (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 12-14). The early discussions with Mr. Mescon included the fact that Mr. Gingrich intended to have the Renewing American Civilization course disseminated through a satellite uplink system. (Ex. 49, Mescon 0664; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 29-30).
Shortly before this discussion with Mr. Mescon, in late January 1993, Mr. Gingrich met with a group of GOPAC Charter Members. In a letter written some months later to GOPAC Charter Members, Mr. Gingrich described the meeting as follows:
During our meeting in January, a number of Charter Members were kind enough to take part in a planning session on "Renewing American Civilization." That session not only affected the substance of what the message was to be, but also how best the new message of positive solutions could be disseminated to this nation's decision makers-- elected officials, civic and business leaders, the media and individual voters. In addition to my present avenues of communication I decided to add an avenue close to my heart, that being teaching. I have agreed with Kennesaw State College, . . . to teach "Renewing American Civilization" as a for-credit class four times during the next four years.(Ex. 50, Kohler 137-138). During an interview with the Special Counsel, Mr. Gingrich said he doubted that he had written this letter and said that the remark in the letter that the Charter Members' comments played a large role in developing the course "exaggerates the role of GOPAC." The letter was written to "flatter" the Charter Members. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 129-130).
Importantly, we made the decision to have the class available as a "teleseminar" to students all across the country, reaching college campuses, businesses, civic organizations, and individuals through a live "uplink," video tapes and audio tapes. Our hope is to have at least 50,000 individuals taking the class this fall and to have trained 200,000 knowledgeable citizen activists by 1996 who will support the principles and goals we have set.
In a March 29, 1993 memorandum, Mr. Gingrich specifically connects the course with the political goals of the movement. The memorandum is entitled "Renewing American Civilization as a defining concept" and is directed to "Various Gingrich Staffs." The original draft of the memorandum is in Mr. Gingrich's handwriting. (Ex. 51, GDC 08891-08892, GDC 10236-10238). In the memorandum, Mr. Gingrich wrote:
I believe the vision of renewing American civilization will allow us to orient and focus our activities for a long time to come.(Ex. 51, GDC 08891).
At every level from the national focus of the Whip office to the 6th district of Georgia focus of the Congressional office to the national political education efforts of GOPAC and the re-election efforts of FONG we should be able to use the ideas, language and concepts of renewing American civilization.
In the memorandum, he describes a process for the dissemination of the message of Renewing American Civilization to virtually every person he talks to. This dissemination includes a copy of the Special Order speech and a one-page outline of the course. He then goes on to describe the role of the course in this process:
The course is only one in a series of strategies designed to implement a strategy of renewing American civilization.(Ex. 51, GDC 08891). Another strategy involving the course is:
Getting Republican activists committed to renewing American civilization, to setting up workshops built around the course, and to opening the party up to every citizen who wants to renew American civilization.(Ex. 51, GDC 08892). Jana Rogers, the Site Host Coordinator for the course in 1993, was shown a copy of this memorandum and said she had seen it in the course of her work at GOPAC. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 64). She said that this represented what she was doing in her job with the course. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 67-69). Steve Hanser, a paid GOPAC consultant and someone who worked on the course, also said that the contents of the memorandum were consistent with the strategy related to the movement. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 42-45).
The most direct description of the role of the course in relation to the movement to renew American civilization is set out in a document which Mr. Gingrich indicates he wrote. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 162-163). The document has a fax stamp date of May 13, 1993 and indicates it is from the Republican Whip's Office. (Ex. 52, GDC 10639-10649). The document has three parts to it. The first is entitled "Renewing America Vision" (Ex. 52, GDC 10639-10643); the second is entitled "Renewing America Strategies" (Ex. 52, GDC 10644-10646); and the third is entitled "Renewing American Civilization Our Goal." (Ex. 52, GDC 10647-10649). Mr. Gingrich said that the third part was actually a separate document. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 162-164). While all three parts are labeled "draft," the document was distributed to a number of Mr. Gingrich's staff members and associates, including Mr. Hanser, Ms. Prochnow, Ms. Rogers, Mr. Gaylord, Mr. Eisenach, and Allan Lipsett (a press secretary). Each of the recipients of the document have described it as an accurate description of the Renewing American Civilization movement. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 48, 53; 7/10/96 Prochnow Tr. 70-71; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 71-75; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 66-67; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 148-149, 272-275; Lipsett Tr. 30-31). In the first section, Mr. Gingrich wrote:
The challenge to us is to be positive, to be specific, to be intellectually serious, and to be able to communicate in clear language a clear vision of the American people and why it is possible to create that America in our generation.(Ex. 52, GDC 10643).
Once the American people understand what they can have they will insist that their politicians abolish the welfare state which is crippling them, their children, and their country and that they replace it with an opportunity society based on historically proven principles that we see working all around us.
In the second portion of the document, Mr. Gingrich describes how the vision of renewing America will be accomplished. He lists thirteen separate efforts that fall into categories of communication of the ideas in clear language, educating people in the principles of replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society, and recruiting public officials and activists to implement the doctrines of renewing American civilization. (Ex. 52, GDC 10644-10646).
In the third section, Mr. Gingrich explicitly connects the course to the movement. First he starts out with three propositions that form the core of the course: 1) a refrain he refers to as the "four can'ts;" 2) the welfare state has failed; and 3) the welfare state must be replaced because it cannot be repaired. (Ex. 52, GDC 10647; see also Ex. 54, PFF 18361, 18365-18367). He then described the goal of the movement:
Our overall goal is to develop a blueprint for renewing America by replacing the welfare state, recruit, discover, arouse and network together 200,000 activists including candidates for elected office at all levels, and arouse enough volunteers and contributors to win a sweeping victory in 1996 and then actually implement our victory in the first three months of 1997.Our specific goals are to:
1. By April 1996 have a thorough, practical blueprint for replacing the welfare state that can be understood and supported by voters and activists.(Ex. 52, GDC 10647-10649). The "sweeping victory" referred to above is by Republicans. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 86). The reference to "our candidates" above is to Republican candidates. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 90). According to Mr. Gingrich, Mr. Gaylord, and Mr. Eisenach, the three goals set forth above were to be accomplished by the course. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 174-179; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 66-67; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 225; Ex. 55, GOPAC2 2419; Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2172-2173; Ex. 57, Mescon 0626).
We will teach a course on Renewing American civilization on ten Saturday mornings this fall and make it available by satellite, by audio and video tape and by computer to interested activists across the country. A month will then be spent redesigning the course based on feedback and better ideas. Then the course will be retaught in Winter Quarter 1994. It will then be rethought and redesigned for nine months of critical re-evaluation based on active working groups actually applying ideas across the country the course will be taught for one final time in Winter Quarter 1996.
2. Have created a movement and momentum which require the national press corps to actually study the material in order to report the phenomenon thus infecting them with new ideas, new language and new perspectives.
3. Have a cadre of at least 200,000 people committed to the general ideas so they are creating an echo effect on talk radio and in letters to the editor and most of our candidates and campaigns reflect the concepts of renewing America.
Replacing the welfare state will require about 200,000 activists (willing to learn now [sic] to replace the welfare state, to run for office and to actually replace the welfare state once in office) and about six million supporters (willing to write checks, put up yard signs, or do a half day's volunteer work).
In various descriptions of the course, Mr. Gingrich stated that his intention was to teach it over a four-year period. After each teaching of the course he intended to have it reviewed and improved. The ultimate goal was to have a final product developed by April of 1996. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 109; Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2170). An explanation of this goal is found in a three-page document, in Mr. Gingrich's handwriting, entitled "End State April 1996." (Ex. 58, PFF 20107-20109). Mr. Gingrich said he wrote this document early in the process of developing the movement and described it as a statement of where he hoped to be by April 1996 in regard to the movement and the course. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 108-115). On the first page he wrote that the 200,000 plus activists will have a common language and general vision of renewing America, and a commitment to replacing the welfare state. In addition, "[v]irtually all Republican incumbents and candidates [will] have the common language and goals." (Ex. 58, PFF 20107). On the second page he wrote that the "Republican platform will clearly be shaped by the vision, language, goals and analysis of renewing America." (Ex. 58, PFF 20108). In addition, virtually all Republican Presidential candidates will broadly agree on that vision, language, goals and analysis. (Ex. 58, PFF 20108). The Clinton administration and the Democratic Party will be measured by the vision, principles and goals of renewing America and there will be virtual agreement that the welfare state has failed. (Ex. 58, PFF 20108). On the last page Mr. Gingrich wrote a timeline for the course running from September of 1993 through March of 1996. At the point on the timeline where November 1994 appears, he wrote the word "Election." (Ex. 58, PFF 20109). When Mr. Hanser was asked about this document he said that the vision, language, and concepts of the Renewing American Civilization movement discussed in the document were being developed in the course. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 53). He went on to say that "End State" was "an application of those ideas to a specific political end, which is one of the purposes, remember, for the course." (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 54). There was an appreciation that this would be primarily a Republican endeavor. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 30).
C. GOPAC AND RENEWING AMERICAN CIVILIZATION
As discussed above, GOPAC was a political action committee dedicated to, among other things, achieving Republican control of the United States House of Representatives. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 169; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 38-40). One of the methods it used was the creation of a political message and the dissemination of that message. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 18-19; 6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 13-14; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 36). The tool principally used by GOPAC to disseminate its message was audiotapes and videotapes. These were sent to Republican activists, elected officials, potential candidates, and the public. The ultimate purpose of this effort was to help Republicans win elections. (6/27/96 Nelson Tr. 21-22; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 37, 39; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 35-36).
1. GOPAC's Adoption of the Renewing American Civilization Theme
At least as of late January 1993, Mr. Gingrich and Mr. Eisenach had decided that GOPAC's political message for 1993 and 1994 would be "Renewing American Civilization." (Ex. 59, PFF 37584-37590; 11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 157; 7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 61-62, 74; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 35-36, 42-43; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 35, 54-56; 6/28/96 Taylor Tr. 26; 6/27/96 Nelson Tr. 34, 46). As described in a February 1993 memorandum over Mr. Gingrich's name to GOPAC Charter Members:
GOPAC's core mission -- to provide the ideas and the message for Republicans to win at the grass roots -- is now more important than ever, and we have important plans for 1993 and for the 1993-1994 cycle. The final enclosure is a memorandum from Jeff Eisenach outlining our 1993 program which I encourage you to review carefully and, again, let me know what you think.(Ex. 60, PFF 37569). The attached memorandum, dated February 1, 1993, is from Mr. Eisenach to Mr. Gingrich and references their recent discussions concerning GOPAC's political program for 1993. (Ex. 59, PFF 37584-37590). It then lists five different programs. The fourth one states:
4) Message Development/"Renewing American Civilization" -- focus group project designed to test and improve the "Renewing American Civilization" message in preparation for its use in 1993 legislative campaigns and 1994 Congressional races.(Ex. 59, PFF 37584) (emphasis in original). Of the other four programs listed, three relate directly to the use of the Renewing American Civilization message. The fourth -- the "'Tory (Franchise) Model' R & D" -- was not done. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 188). This same political program was also listed in two separate GOPAC documents dated April 26, 1993. One is entitled "1993 GOPAC POLITICAL PROGRAM" (Ex. 61, PP001187-00193) and the other is the "GOPAC Report to Shareholders." (Ex. 62, Eisenach 2536-2545). The first page of the Report to Shareholders states:
The challenge facing Republicans, however, is an awesome one: We must build a governing majority, founded on basic principles, that is prepared to do what we failed to do during the last 12 years: Replace the Welfare State with an Opportunity Society and demonstrate that our ideas are the key to progress, freedom and the Renewal of American Civilization.(Ex. 62, Eisenach 2536).
In describing the political programs, these documents provide status reports that indicate that the Renewing American Civilization message is at the center of each project. Under "Off-Year State Legislative Races (New Jersey, Virginia)" the project is described as "Newt speaking at and teaching training seminar for candidates at [a June 5, 1993] Virginia Republican Convention." (Ex. 61, PP001187; Ex. 62, Eisenach 2540). As discussed below, that speech and training session centered on the Renewing American Civilization message. Under "Ongoing Political Activities" the first aspect of the project is described as sending tapes and establishing a training module on Renewing American Civilization and health care. (Ex. 61, PP001187; Ex. 62, Eisenach 2540). Under "Curriculum Update and Expansion" the project is described as the production of new training tapes based on Mr. Gingrich's session at the Virginia Republican Convention. (Ex. 61, PP01189; Ex. 62, Eisenach 2541).
2. GOPAC'S Inability to Fund Its Political Projects in 1992 and 1993
At the end of 1992, GOPAC was at least $250,000 short of its target income (Ex. 65, PFF 38054) and financial problems lasted throughout 1993. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 71-72). Because of these financial shortfalls, GOPAC had to curtail its political projects, particularly the tape program described above. (Ex. 65, PFF 38054-38060; Ex. 66, WGC 07428; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 71-72, 76). For example, according to Mr. Gaylord, GOPAC usually sent out eight tapes a year; however, in 1993, it only sent out two. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 76). One of these was the "Renewing American Civilization" tape made from Mr. Gingrich's June 1993 training session at the Virginia Republican Convention (Ex. 63, JG 000001693). Accompanying the mailing of this tape was a letter from Joe Gaylord in his role as Chairman of GOPAC. That letter states:
Ideas matter, and replacing the welfare state with an Opportunity society is so important that Newt is developing a college course that he'll be teaching this fall on this subject, Renewing American Civilization.(Ex. 67, WGC 06215).
I wanted you to hear his initial thoughts because it seems to me that we can't answer the question "What does the Republican Party stand for?" without considering the issues Newt has raised in this speech.
In light of GOPAC's poor financial condition, the dissemination of the Renewing American Civilization message through the course was beneficial to its political projects. In this regard, the following exchange occurred with Mr. Gingrich:
Mr. Cole: [I]s one of the things GOPAC wanted to have done during 1993 and 1994 was the dissemination of its message; is that correct?
Mr. Gingrich: Yes.
Mr. Cole: GOPAC also did not have much money in those years; is that correct?
Mr. Gingrich: That is correct. Particularly -- it gets better in '94, but '93 was very tight.
Mr. Cole: That curtailed how much it could spend on disseminating its message?
Mr. Gingrich: Right.
Mr. Cole: The message that it was trying to disseminate was the Renewing American Civilization message; is that right?
Mr. Gingrich: Was the theme, yes.
(11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 157-158). With respect to whether the dissemination of the course benefited GOPAC, the following exchange occurred:
Mr. Cole: Was GOPAC better off in a situation where the message that it had chosen as its political message for those years was being disseminated by the course? Was it better off?
Mr. Gingrich: The answer is yes.
(11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 167).
3. GOPAC's Involvement in the Development, Funding, and Management of the Renewing American Civilization Course
a. GOPAC Personnel
Starting at least as early as February 1993, Mr. Eisenach, then GOPAC's Executive Director, was involved in developing the Renewing American Civilization course. Although Mr. Eisenach has stated that Mr. Gaylord was responsible for the development of the course until mid-May 1993 (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 71-75; Ex. 68, Eisenach Testimony Before House Ethics Committee at Tr. 142; Ex. 69, PFF 1167), Mr. Gaylord stated that he never had such a responsibility. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 15-18). Additionally, Mr. Gingrich and others involved in the development of the course identified Mr. Eisenach as the person primarily responsible for the development of the course from early on. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 117, 121; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 30-31; 6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 74-75; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 17-18, 22). Several documents also establish Mr. Eisenach's role in the development of the course starting at an early stage. One document written by Mr. Eisenach is dated February 25, 1993, and shows him, as well as others, tasked with course development and marketing. (Ex. 70, PFF 16628). A memorandum from Mr. Gingrich to Mr. Mescon, dated March 1, 1993, describes how Mr. Eisenach is involved in contacting a number of institutions in regard to funding for the course. (Ex. 71, KSC 3491).
Aside from Mr. Eisenach, other people affiliated with GOPAC were involved in the development of the course. Mr. Gingrich was General Chairman of GOPAC and had a substantial role in the course. Jana Rogers served as Mr. Eisenach's executive assistant at GOPAC during the early part of 1993 and in that role worked on the development of the course. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 16-17). In June 1993, she temporarily left GOPAC at Mr. Eisenach's request to become the course's Site Host Coordinator. As a condition of her becoming the site host coordinator, she received assurances from both Mr. Eisenach and Mr. Gaylord that she could return to GOPAC when she had finished her assignment with the course. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 12-16). After approximately five months as the course's Site Host Coordinator, she returned to GOPAC for a brief time. (7/3/96 Rogers 24-25). Steve Hanser, a member of the GOPAC Board and a paid GOPAC consultant, helped develop the course. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 10, 19-21). Mr. Gaylord was a paid consultant for GOPAC and had a role in developing the course. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 15).
Pamla Prochnow was hired as the Finance Director for GOPAC in April 1993. Ms. Prochnow spent a portion of her early time at GOPAC raising funds for the course. (7/10/96 Prochnow Tr. 14-16; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 63-67, 82; Ex. 74, Documents produced by Prochnow). A number of the people and entities she contacted were GOPAC supporters. In fact, according to Mr. Eisenach, approximately half of the first year's funding for the course came from GOPAC supporters. (Ex. 69, PFF 1168-1169). Some of those people also helped fund the course in 1994. (See attachments to Ex. 69, PFF 1252-1277) (the documents contain Mr. Eisenach's marks of "G" next to the people, companies, and foundations that were donors or related to donors to GOPAC.))
When Mr. Eisenach resigned from GOPAC and assumed the title of the course's project director, two GOPAC employees joined him in his efforts. Kelly Goodsell had been Mr. Eisenach's Administrative Assistant at GOPAC since March of 1993 (7/9/96 Goodsell Tr. 8, 11), and Michael DuGally had been an employee at GOPAC since January 1992. (7/19/96 DuGally Tr. 9-10). Both went to work on the course as employees of Mr. Eisenach's Washington Policy Group ("WPG"). In the contract between WPG and KSCF, it was understood that WPG would devote one-half of the time of its employees to working on the course. WPG had only one other client at this time -- GOPAC. In its contract with GOPAC, WPG was to receive the same monthly fee as was being paid by KSCF in return for one-half of the time of WPG's employees. (Ex. 76, PFF 37450-37451). The contract also stated that to the extent that WPG did not devote full time to KSCF and GOPAC projects, an adjustment in the fee paid to WPG would be made. (Ex. 76, PFF 37450). Neither Ms. Goodsell nor Mr. DuGally worked on any GOPAC project after they started working on the course in June of 1993. (7/9/96 Goodsell Tr. 8, 10-11; 7/19/96 DuGally Tr. 14). Mr. Eisenach said that he spent at the most one-third of his time during this period on GOPAC projects. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 36-37). No adjustment to WPG's fee was made by GOPAC. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 44).
The February 15, 1993, agenda discussed above also gives some indication of GOPAC's role in the development of the Renewing American Civilization course. (Ex. 47, JR-0000645-0000647). Of the eight attendees at that meeting, five worked for or were closely associated with GOPAC (Mr. DuGally, Mr. Eisenach and Ms. Rogers were employees, Mr. Hanser was a member of the Board and a paid GOPAC consultant, and Mr. Gingrich was the General Chairman). Furthermore, the agenda for that meeting indicates that GOPAC political issues were to be discussed as well as course planning issues. Two of the GOPAC political issues apparently related to: (1) the political program described in the February 1, 1993, memorandum which lists four of GOPAC's five political projects as relating to Renewing American Civilization (Ex. 60, PFF 37569-37576), and (2) GOPAC's Charter Meeting agenda entitled "Renewing American Civilization." As discussed below, this Charter Meeting included breakout sessions to help develop a number of the lectures for the course, as well as GOPAC's message for the 1993-1994 election cycle. (Ex. 78, PP00448-PP000452). As Mr. Gingrich stated in his interview, his intention was to have GOPAC use Renewing American Civilization as its message during this time frame. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 74; 7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 54-56).
In 1993 Mr. Eisenach periodically produced a list of GOPAC projects. The list is entitled "Major Projects Underway" and was used for staff meetings. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 213; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 79-80; 6/28/96 Taylor Tr. 43-44). Items related to the Renewing American Civilization course were listed in several places on GOPAC's project sheets. For example, from April 1993 through at least June 1993, "Renewing American Civilization Support" is listed under the "Planning/Other" section of GOPAC's projects sheets. (Ex. 79, JG 000001139, JG 000001152, JG 000001173, JG 000001270). Another entry which appears a number of times under "Planning/Other" is "RAC Pert Chart, etc." (Ex. 79, JG 000001152, JG 000001173, JG 000001270). It refers to a time-line Mr. Eisenach wrote while he was the Executive Director of GOPAC relating to the development of the various components of the course, including marketing and site coordination, funding, readings, and the course textbook. (Ex. 80, PFF 7529-7533; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 212-213). Finally, under the heading "Political" on the May 7, 1993, project sheet, is listed the phrase "CR/RAC Letter." (Ex. 79, JG 000001152). This refers to a mailing about the course sent over Mr. Gingrich's name by GOPAC to approximately 1,000 College Republicans. (Ex. 81, Mescon 0918, 0915, 0914 and Meeks 0038-0040; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 81-82).
b. Involvement of GOPAC Charter Members in Course Design
As discussed earlier, Mr. Gingrich had a meeting with GOPAC Charter Members in January 1993 to discuss the ideas of Renewing American Civilization. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 132). According to a letter written about that meeting, the idea to teach arose from that meeting. In April 1993, GOPAC held its semi-annual Charter Meeting. Its theme was "Renewing American Civilization." (Ex. 78, PP000448-PP000452). Mr. Gingrich gave the keynote address, entitled "Renewing American Civilization," and there were five breakout sessions entitled "Advancing the Five Pillars of Twenty-first Century Democracy." (Ex. 78, PP000449). Each of the breakout sessions was named for a lecture in the course, and these sessions were used to help develop the content of the course (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 164-165; 7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 69-70; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 144-146; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 46) as well as GOPAC's political message for the 1993 legislative campaigns and the 1994 congressional races. (11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 164-165; Ex. 62, Eisenach 2540). As stated in a memorandum from Mr. Eisenach to GOPAC Charter Members, these breakout sessions were intended to "dramatically improve both our understanding of the subject and our ability to communicate it." (Ex. 82, Roberts 0045-0048).
c. Letters sent by GOPAC
In June of 1993, GOPAC sent a letter over Mr. Gingrich's signature stating that "it is vital for Republicans to now DEVELOP and put forward OUR agenda for America." (Ex. 83, PP000534) (emphasis in original). In discussing an enclosed survey the letter states:
It is the opening step in what I want to be an unprecedented mobilization effort for Republicans to begin the process of replacing America's failed welfare state.(Ex. 83, PP000535). The letter then states that it is important to develop the themes and ideas that will be needed to accomplish the victory in 1994. (Ex. 83, PP000536). In language that is very similar to the core of the course, but with an overtly partisan aspect added to it, the letter states:
And the key political component of that effort will be an all-out drive to end the Democrat's 40 year control of the U.S. House or Representatives in 1994!
Personally, I believe we can and should turn the 1994 midterm elections into not just a referendum on President Clinton, but on whether we maintain or replace the welfare state and the Democratic Party which supports it.1) Personal strength;
I believe the welfare state which the Democrats have created has failed.
In fact, I challenge anyone to say that it has succeeded, when today in America twelve year olds are having children, fifteen year olds are killing each other, seventeen year olds are dying of AIDS and eighteen year olds are being given high school diplomas they cannot even read.
* * *
And what I want to see our Party work to replace it with is a plan to renew America based on what I call "pillars" of freedom and progress:
2) A commitment to quality in the workplace;
3) Spirit of American Inventiveness;
4) Entrepreneurial free enterprise applied to both the private and public sectors;
5) Applying the lessons of American history as to what works for Americans to proposed government solutions to our problems.
After being active in politics for thirty years, and being in Congress for fourteen of them, I firmly believe these five principles can develop a revolutionary change in government. Properly applied, they can dramatically improve safety, health, education, job creation, the environment, the family and our national defense.(Ex. 83, PP000536).
In other letters sent out by GOPAC, the role of the Renewing American Civilization course in relation to the Republican political goals of GOPAC were described in explicit terms. A letter to Neil Gagnon, dated May 5, 1993, over Mr. Gingrich's name, states:
As we discussed, it is time to lay down a blue print -- which is why in part I am teaching the course on Renewing American Civilization. Hopefully, it will provide the structure to build an offense so that Republicans can break through dramatically in 1996. We have a good chance to make significant gains in 1994, but only if we can reach the point where we are united behind a positive message, as well as a critique of the Clinton program.(Ex. 84, GOPAC2 0003).
In a letter dated June 21, 1993, that Pamla Prochnow, GOPAC's new finance director, sent to Charter Members as a follow-up to an earlier letter from Mr. Gingrich, she states:
As the new finance director, I want to introduce myself and to assure you of my commitment and enthusiasm to the recruitment and training of grassroots Republican candidates. In addition, with the course Newt will be teaching in the fall - Renewing American Civilization - I see a very real opportunity to educate the American voting population to Republican ideals, increasing our opportunity to win local, state and Congressional seats.(Ex. 85, PP000194).
On January 3, 1994, Ms. Prochnow sent another letter to the Charter Members. It states:
As we begin the new year, we know our goals and have in place the winning strategies. The primary mission is to elect Republicans at the local, state and congressional level. There, also, is the strong emphasis on broadcasting the message of renewing American civilization to achieve peace and prosperity in this country.(Ex. 86, PP000866).
In another letter sent over Mr. Gingrich's name, the course is again discussed. The letter, dated May 12, 1994, is addressed to Marc Bergschneider and states:
I am encouraged by your understanding that the welfare state cannot merely be repaired, but must be replaced and have made a goal of activating at least 200,000 citizen activists nationwide through my course, Renewing American Civilization. We hope to educate people with the fact that we are entering the information society. In order to make sense of this society, we must rebuild an opportunistic country. In essence, if we can reach Americans through my course, independent expenditures, GOPAC and other strategies, we just might unseat the Democratic majority in the House in 1994 and make government accountable again.(Ex. 87, GDC 01137).
Current and former GOPAC employees said that before a letter would go out over Mr. Gingrich's signature, it would be approved by him. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 88; 6/27/96 Nelson Tr. 56-60). According to Mr. Eisenach, Mr. Gingrich "typically" reviewed letters that went out over his signature, but did not sign all letters that were part of a mass mailing. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 35). With respect to letters sent to individuals over Mr. Gingrich's name, Mr. Eisenach said the following:
Mr. Eisenach: [Mr. Gingrich] would either review those personally or be generally aware of the content. In other words, on rare, if any, occasions, did I or anybody else invent the idea of sending a letter to somebody, write the letter, send it under Newt's signature and never check with him to see whether he wanted the letter to go.
There were occasions -- now, sometimes that would be -- Newt and I would discuss the generic need for a letter. I would write the letter and send it and fax a copy to him and make sure he knew that it had been sent.
Mr. Cole: Would you generally review the contents of the letter with him prior to it going out?
Mr. Eisenach: Not necessarily word for word. It would depend. But as a general matter, yes.
(7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 36). Mr. Gingrich's Administrative Assistant, Rachel Robinson, stated that in 1993 and 1994 whenever she received a letter or other document for Mr. Gingrich that was to be filed, she would sign Mr. Gingrich's name on the document and place her initials on it. This "usually" meant that Mr. Gingrich had seen the letter. (9/6/96 Robinson Tr. 4). The letter sent to Mr. Bergschneider on May 12, 1994, was produced from the files of Mr. Gingrich's Washington, D.C. office and has Ms. Robinson's initials on it. (9/6/96 Robinson Tr. 4).
The letters sent out over Mr. Gingrich's signature were shown to Mr. Gingrich during an interview. He said that none of them contained his signature, he did not recall seeing them prior to the interview, and said he would not have written them in the language used. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 77-78, 140-141). Mr. Gaylord said that "it seemed to [him] there was a whole series of kind of usual correspondence that was done by the staff" that Mr. Gingrich would not see. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 77). The content of the letters listed above, however, are quite similar to statements made directly by Mr. Gingrich about the movement and the role of the course in the movement. (See, e.g., Ex. 47, JR-0000646 ("emphasis is on the Republican Party as the primary vehicle for renewing American civilization"); Ex. 52 GDC 10639-10649 ("sweeping victory" will be accomplished through the course); Ex. 88, GDC 10729-10733 ("Democrats are the party of the welfare state." "Only by voting Republican can the welfare state be replaced and an opportunity society be created."))
D. "REPLACING THE WELFARE STATE WITH AN OPPORTUNITY SOCIETY" AS A POLITICAL TOOL
According to Mr. Gingrich, the main theme of both the Renewing American Civilization movement and the course was the replacement of the welfare state with an opportunity society. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 52, 61, 170; 11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 85). Mr. Gingrich also said, "I believe that to replace the welfare state you almost certainly had to have a [R]epublican majority." (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 51). "I think it's hard to replace the welfare state with the [D]emocrats in charge." (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 62). The course was designed to communicate the vision and language of the Renewing American Civilization movement and "was seen as a tool that could be used to replace the welfare state." (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 159-160; see also 11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 47, 76).
In addition to being the title of a movement, the course, and GOPAC's political message for 1993 and 1994, "Renewing American Civilization" was also the main message of virtually every political and campaign speech made by Mr. Gingrich in 1993 and 1994. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 69). According to Mr. Gingrich, there was an effort in 1994 to use the "welfare state" label as a campaign tool against the Democrats and to use the "opportunity society" label as an identification for the Republicans. (7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 113). Mr. Gingrich made similar comments in a subsequent interview:
Mr. Cole: During [1993-1994] was there an effort to connect the Democrats with the welfare state?
Mr. Gingrich: Absolutely; routinely and repetitively.
Mr. Cole: And a campaign use of that?
Mr. Gingrich: Absolutely.
Mr. Cole: A partisan use, if you will?
Mr. Gingrich: Absolutely.
Mr. Cole: And was there an effort to connect the Republicans with the opportunity society?
Mr. Gingrich: Absolutely.
Mr. Cole: A partisan use?
Mr. Gingrich: Yes, sir.
Mr. Cole: And that was the main theme of the course, was it not, replacement of the welfare state with the opportunity society?
Mr. Gingrich: No. The main theme of the course is renewing American civilization and the main subset is that you have -- that you have to replace the welfare state with an opportunity society for that to happen.
(11/13/96 Gingrich Tr. 79-80).
As referred to above, Mr. Gingrich held a training seminar for candidates on behalf of GOPAC at the Virginia Republican Convention in June 1993. (7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 29-30). He gave a speech entitled "Renewing American Civilization" which described the nature of the movement and the course. (Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2146-2209). Near the beginning of his speech, Mr. Gingrich said:
What I first want to suggest to you [is] my personal belief that we are engaged in a great moral and practical effort, that we are committed to renewing American civilization, and I believe that's our battle cry. That we want to be the party and the movement that renews American civilization and that renewing American civilization is both an idealistic cause and a practical cause at the same time.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2146).
He then told the audience that he has four propositions with which 80% to 95% of Americans will agree. These are: 1) there is an American civilization; 2) the four can'ts; 3) the welfare state has failed; and 4) to renew American civilization it is necessary to replace the welfare state. (Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2149-2153). Mr. Gingrich then went on to relate the principles of renewing American civilization to the Republican party:
We can't do much about the Democrats. They went too far to the left. They are still too far to the left. That's their problem. But we have a huge burden of responsibility to change our behavior so that every one who wants to replace the welfare state and every one who wants to renew American civilization has a home, and it's called being Republican. We have to really learn how to bring them all in.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2155-2156).
And I think the first step of all that is to insist that at the core of identification the only division that matters is that question. You want to replace the welfare state and renew American civilization. The answer is just fine, come and join us. And not allow the news media, not allow the Democrats, not allow interest groups to force us into fights below that level in terms of defining who we are. That in any general election or any effort to govern that we are every one who is willing to try to replace the welfare state, and we are every one who is willing to renew American civilization.
Now, that means there is a lot of ground in there to argue about details. Exactly how do you replace the welfare state. Exactly which idea is the best idea. But if we accept every one coming in, we strongly change the dynamics of exactly how this country is governed and we begin to create a majority Republican party that will frankly just inexorably crow[d] out the Democrats and turn them into minority status.
Mr. Gingrich told the audience that he would discuss three areas in his remarks: 1) the principles of renewing American civilization; 2) the principles and skills necessary to be a "renewing candidate" and then ultimately a "renewing incumbent;" and 3) the concept and principles for creating a community among those who are committed to replacing the welfare state and renewing American civilization. (Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2168). In speaking of the first area, Mr. Gingrich said that it is a very complicated subject. Because of this he was only going to give a "smattering" of an outline at the training seminar. (Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2170). He said, however, that in the fall he planned to teach a twenty-hour course on the subject, and then refine it and teach it again over a four-year period. (Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2170). He then described the three goals he had for the course:
First, we want to have by April of '96 a genuine intellectual blueprint to replace the welfare state that you could look at as a citizen and say, yeah, that has a pretty good chance of working. That's dramatically better than what we've been doing.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2170-2171).
Second, we want to find 200,000 activist citizens, and I hope all of you will be part of this, committed at every level of American life to replacing the welfare state. Because America is a huge decentralized country. You've got to have school boards, city councils, hospital boards, state legislatures, county commissioners, mayors, and you've got to have congressmen and senators and the President and governors, who literally [sic] you take all the elected posts in America and then you take all the people necessary to run for those posts and to help the campaigns, etc., I think it takes around 200,000 team players to truly change America.
Third, we create a process -- and this is something you can all help with in your own districts -- we create a process interesting enough that the national news media has to actually look at the material in order to cover the course.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2173).
The transcript of his speech goes on for the next 30 pages to describe the five pillars of American civilization that form the basis of the course, and how to use them to get supporters for the candidates' campaigns. In discussing this Mr. Gingrich said:
Now, let me start just as [a] quick overview. First, as I said earlier, American civilization is a civilization. Very important. It is impossible for anyone on the left to debate you on that topic.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2175-2176). Near the end of the speech he said:
* * *
But the reason I say that is if you go out and you campaign on behalf of American civilization and you want to renew American civilization, it is linguistically impossible to oppose you. And how is your opponent going to get up and say I'm against American civilization?
I believe, if you take the five pillars I've described, if you find the three areas that will really fit you, and are really in a position to help you, that you are then going to have a language to explain renewing American civilization, a language to explain how to replace the welfare state, and three topics that are going to arouse volunteers and arouse contributions and help people say, Yes, I want this done.(Ex. 56, GOPAC2 2207).
In a document that Mr. Gingrich apparently wrote during this time (Ex. 89, Eisenach 2868-2869), the course is related to the Renewing American Civilization movement in terms of winning a Republican majority. The "House Republican Focus for 1994" is directed at having Republicans communicate a positive message so that a majority of Americans will conclude that their only hope for real change is to vote Republican. In describing that message, the document states:
The Republican party can offer a better life for virtually every one if it applies the principles of American civilization to create a more flexible, decentralized market oriented system that uses the Third Wave of change and accepts the disciplines of the world market.(Ex. 89, Eisenach 2869).
These ideas are outlined in a 20 hour intellectual framework "Renewing American Civilization" available on National Empowerment Television every Wednesday from 1 pm to 3 pm and available on audio tape and video tape from 1-800-TO RENEW.
In a document dated March 21, 1994, and entitled "RENEWING AMERICA: The Challenge for Our Generation," Mr. Gingrich described a relationship between the course and the movement. (Ex. 90, GDC 00132-00152). Near the beginning of the document, one of the "key propositions" listed is that the welfare state has failed and must be replaced with an opportunity society. (Ex. 90, GDC 00136). The opportunity society must be based on, among other things, the principles of American civilization. (Ex. 90, GDC 00136). The document states that the key ingredient for success is a movement to renew American civilization by replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society. (Ex. 90, GDC 00137). That movement will require at least 200,000 "partners for progress" committed to the goal of replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society and willing to study the principles of American civilization, work on campaigns, run for office, and engage in other activities to further the movement. (Ex. 90, GDC 00138). Under the heading "LEARNING THE PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN CIVILIZATION" the document states, "The course, 'Renewing American Civilization', is designed as a 20 hour introduction to the principles necessary to replace the welfare state with an opportunity society." (Ex. 90, GDC 00139). It then lists the titles of each class and the book of readings associated with the course. The next section is titled "Connecting the 'Partners' to the 'Principles'." (Ex. 90, GDC 00140). It describes where the course is being taught, including that it is being offered five times during 1994 on National Empowerment Television, and states that, "Our goal is to get every potential partner for progress to take the course and study the principles." (Ex. 90, GDC 00140). The document then lists a number of areas where Republicans can commit themselves to "real change," including the Contract with America and a concerted effort to end the Democratic majority in the House. (Ex. 90, GDC 00144-00150).
A May 10, 1994 document which Mr. Gingrich drafted (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 234-235; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 70) entitled "The 14 Steps[:] Renewing American Civilization by replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society," he notes the relationship between the course and the partisan aspects of the movement. (Ex. 88, GDC 10729-10733). After stating that the welfare state has failed and needs to be replaced (Ex. 88, GDC 10729), the document states that, "Replacing the welfare state will require a disciplined approach to both public policy and politics." (Ex. 88, GDC 10730). "We must methodically focus on communicating and implementing our vision of replacing the welfare state." (Ex. 88, GDC 10730). In describing the replacement that will be needed, Mr. Gingrich says that it:
must be an opportunity society based on the principles of American civilization . . . .(Ex. 88, GDC 10730).
These principles each receive two hours of introduction in 'Renewing American Civilization', a course taught at Reinhardt College. The course is available on National Empowerment Television from 1 - 3 P.M. every Wednesday and by videotape or audiotape by calling 1-800-TO-RENEW.
This document goes on to describe the 200,000 "partners for progress" as being necessary for the replacement of the welfare state and how the Contract with America will be a first step toward replacing the welfare state with an opportunity society. (Ex. 88, GDC 10731). The document then states:
The Democrats are the party of the welfare state. Too many years in office have led to arrogance of power and to continuing violations of the basic values of self-government.(Ex. 88, GDC 10731).
Only by voting Republican can the welfare state be replaced and an opportunity society be created.
On November 1, 1994, Mr. Gingrich attended a meeting with Ms. Minnix, his co-teacher at Reinhardt, to discuss the teaching of the course in 1995. (Ex. 92, Reinhardt 0063-0065). Also at that meeting were Mr. Hanser, Ms. Desmond, Mr. Eisenach, and John McDowell. One of the topics discussed at the meeting was Mr. Gingrich's desire to teach the course on a second day in Washington, D.C. According to notes of the meeting prepared by Ms. Minnix, Mr. Gingrich wanted to teach the course in D.C. in an effort:
to attract freshman congresspeople, the press--who will be trying to figure out the Republican agenda-- and congressional staff looking for the basis of Republican doctrine. 'Take the course' will be suggested to those who wonder what a Republican government is going to stand for.(Ex. 92, Reinhardt 0064). Later in the meeting Mr. Gingrich said that his chances of becoming Speaker were greater than 50 percent and he was making plans for a transition from Democratic to Republican rule. Ms. Minnix wrote that Mr. Gingrich "sees the course as vital to this--so vital that no one could convince him to teach it only one time per week and conserve his energy." (Ex. 92, Reinhardt 0065).
A number of other documents reflect a similar partisan, political use of the message and theme of Renewing American Civilization. (Ex. 93, LIP 00602-00610, ("Renewing American Civilization: Our Duty in 1994," a speech given to the Republican National Committee January 21, 1994 Winter Breakfast); Ex. 94, GDC 11010-11012, ("Whip Office Plan for 1994" with the "vision" of "Renew American civilization by replacing the welfare state which requires the election of a Republican majority and passage of our agenda"); Ex. 95, GDC 10667-10670, ("Planning Assumptions for 1994"); Ex. 96, Eisenach 2758-2777, (untitled); Ex. 97, PFF 2479-2489, (seminar on Renewing American Civilization given to the American Legislative Exchange Council); Ex. 98, PFF 37179-37188, ("House GOP Freshman Orientation: Leadership for America's 21st Century."))
E. RENEWING AMERICAN CIVILIZATION HOUSE WORKING GROUP
As stated in Mr. Gingrich's easel notes from December 1992, one goal of the Renewing American Civilization movement was to "professionalize" the House Republicans. (Ex. 42, HAN 02110). His intention was to use the message of Renewing American Civilization to "attract voters, resources and candidates" and to develop a "mechanism for winning seats." (Ex. 42, HAN 02110). In this vein, a group of Republican House Members and others formed a working group to promote the message of Renewing American Civilization. Starting in approximately June 1993, Mr. Gingrich sponsored Representative Pete Hoekstra as the leader of this group and worked with him. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 279). According to a number of documents associated with this group, a goal was to use the theme of renewing American civilization to elect a Republican majority in the House. (Ex. 99, Hoekstra 0259; Ex. 101, Hoekstra 0264; Ex. 102, Gregorsky 0025). According to notes from a July 23, 1993 meeting, Mr. Gingrich addressed the group and made several points:
1. Renewing American Civilization (RAC) is the basic theme;(Ex. 101, Hoekstra 0264). The meeting then turned to a discussion of possible ways to improve these points. (Ex. 101, Hoekstra 0264).
2. RAC begins with replacing the welfare state, not improving it;
3. RAC will occur by promoting the use of the five pillars of American civilization;
4. Use of the three key policy areas of saving the inner city, health, and economic growth and jobs.
On July 30, 1993, another meeting of this group was held. According to notes of that meeting, the group restated its objectives as follows:
a. restate our objective: Renewing American Civilization by replacing the paternalistic welfare state
(Ex. 102, Gregorsky 0025).- GOP majority in the House ASAP
- nationwide GOP majority ASAP
* * *
- objective: create "echo chamber" for RAC
* * *
i. develop RAC with an eye toward marketability
* * *
ii. promote message so that this defines many 1994 electoral contests at the congressional level and below, and defines the 1996 national election.
The goal of the group was further defined in a memorandum written by one of Mr. Hoekstra's staffers in September of 1993. (Ex. 103, Hoekstra 0266-0267). In that memorandum, the staff member said the group's goal had changed "from one of promoting the Renewing American Civilization course to one of proposing a 'political platform' around which House Republican incumbents and candidates can rally." (Ex. 103, Hoekstra 0266). The group's "underlying perspective" was described as follows:
To expand our party, it is important that Republicans develop, agree on and learn to explain a positive philosophy of government.(Ex. 103, Hoekstra 0266-0267).
At the core of that philosophy is the observation that the paternalistic welfare state has failed, and must be replaced by alternative mechanisms within and outside of government if social objectives are to be achieved.
Fundamental to developing a new philosophy is the idea that traditions in American civilization have proven themselves to be powerful mechanisms for organizing human behavior. There are working principles in the lessons of American history that can be observed, and should be preserved and strengthened.
These working principles distinguish the Republican party and its beliefs from the Democratic party, which remains committed to the welfare state even though these policies are essentially alien to the American experience.
This group began to develop a program to incorporate Renewing American Civilization into the House Republican party. The program's goals included a House Republican majority, Mr. Gingrich as Speaker, and Republican Committee Chairs. (Ex. 104, Hoekstra 0147-0151). To accomplish this goal, there were efforts to have candidates, staffers and members use Renewing American Civilization as their theme. (Ex. 104, Hoekstra 0148). One proposal in this area was a training program for staffers in the principles of Renewing American Civilization for use in their work in the House. (Ex. 104, Hoekstra 0148). A memorandum from Mr. Gingrich to various members of his staffs asked them to review a plan for this training program and give him their comments. (Ex. 105, WGC 03732-03745).
During his interview, Mr. Hoekstra stated that Renewing American Civilization and the concept of replacing the welfare state was intended as a means of defining who Republicans were; however, the group never finalized this as a project. (7/29/96 Hoekstra Tr. 47-48). In talking about this group, Mr. Gingrich said that he wanted the Republican party to move toward Renewing American Civilization as a theme and that he would have asked the group to study the course, understand the ideas, and use those ideas in their work. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 284-286). It is not known what became of this group. Mr. Hoekstra said that the project ended without any closure, but he does not recall how that happened. (7/29/96 Hoekstra Tr. 46).
F. MARKETING OF THE COURSE
As discussed above, Mr. Gingrich wrote in his March 29, 1993 memorandum that he wanted "Republican activists committed . . . to setting up workshops built around the course, and to opening the party up to every citizen who wants to renew American civilization." (Ex. 51, GDC 08892). There is evidence of efforts being made to recruit Republican and conservative organizations into becoming sponsors for the course. These sponsors were known as "site hosts." One of the responsibilities of a site host was to recruit participants. (Ex. 106, PFF 8033). Jana Rogers was the Site Host Coordinator for the course when it was at Kennesaw State College. She stated that part of her work in regard to the course involved getting Republican activists to set up workshops around the course to bring people into the Republican party. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 67-68). She said there was an emphasis on getting Republicans to be site hosts. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 69).
In an undated document entitled "VISION: To Obtain Site Hosts for Winter 1994 Quarter," three "projects" are listed: 1) "To obtain site hosts from conservative organizations;" 2) "To secure site hosts from companies;" 3) "To get cable companies to broadcast course." (Ex. 107, PFF 7526). The "strategies" listed to accomplish the "project" of obtaining site hosts from conservative organizations are listed as:
Mailing to state and local leaders through lists from National Republican Committee, Christian Coalition, American Association of Christian Schools, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Right to Life, Heritage Foundation, Empower America, National Empowerment Television, Free Congress, etc.(Ex. 107, PFF 7526). One of the tactics listed to accomplish the goal of obtaining more site hosts is to:
Contact National College Republican office to obtain names and addresses of all presidents country-wide. Develop letter to ask college republicans to try to obtain the class for credit on their campus or to become a site host with a sponsor group. Also, ask them to contact RAC office for a site host guide and additional information.(Ex. 107, PFF 7527).
In a memorandum written by Nancy Desmond concerning the course, among the areas where she suggested site host recruiting should be directed were to "NAS members," "schools recognized as conservative" and "national headquarters of conservative groups." (Ex. 108, PFF 37328-37330). In a number of the project reports written by employees of the course in 1993, there are notations about contacts with various Republicans in an effort to have them host a site for the course. There are no similar notations of efforts to contact Democrats. (Ex. 109, Multiple Documents).
In several instances mailings were made to Republican or conservative activists or organizations in an effort to recruit them as site hosts. In May of 1993 a letter was sent over Mr. Gingrich's signature to approximately 1,000 College Republicans regarding the course. That letter states that:
[C]onservatives today face a challenge larger than stopping President Clinton. We must ask ourselves what the future would be like if we were allowed to define it, and learn to explain that future to the American people in a way that captures first their imagination and then their votes.
In that context, I am going to devote much of the next four years, starting this Fall, to teaching a course entitled "Renewing American Civilization." I am writing to you today to ask you to enroll for the class, and to organize a seminar so that your friends can enroll as well.
* * *
Let me be clear: This is not about politics as such. But I believe the ground we will cover is essential for anyone who hopes to be involved in politics over the next several decades to understand. American civilization is, after all, the cultural glue that holds us all together. Unless we can understand it, renew it and extend it into the next century, we will never succeed in replacing the Welfare State with an Opportunity Society.
(Ex. 81, Mescon 0915; Meeks 0039). The letter ends by stating:
I have devoted my life to teaching and acting out a set of values and principles. As a fellow Republican, I know you share those values. This class will help us all remember what we're about and why it is so essential that we prevail. Please join me this Fall for "Renewing American Civilization."(Ex. 81, Mescon 0914; Meeks 0040). GOPAC paid for this mailing (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 200; 7/15/96 Gaylord Tr. 82) and it was listed as a "political" project on GOPAC's description of its "Major Projects Underway" for May 7, 1993. (Ex. 79, JG 000001152). At the top of a copy of the letter to the College Republicans is a handwritten notation to Mr. Gingrich from Mr. Eisenach: "Newt, Drops to 1000+ C.R. Chapters on Wednesday. JE cc: Tim Mescon." (Ex. 81, Mescon 0915, Meeks 0039).
During an interview with Mr. Cole, Mr. Eisenach was asked about this letter.
Mr. Eisenach: Use of the course by political institutions in a political context was something that occurred and was part of Newt's intent and was part of the intent of other partisan organizations, but the intent of the course and, most importantly, the operation of the course and its use of tax-exempt funds was always and explicitly done in a nonpartisan way.
Political organizations -- in this case, GOPAC -- found it to their advantage to utilize the course for a political purpose, and they did so.
Mr. Cole: Were you involved in GOPAC?
Mr. Eisenach: At this time I was involved in GOPAC, yes.
Mr. Cole: And in making the decision that GOPAC would utilize the course?
Mr. Eisenach: Yes.
(7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 203).
Mr. DuGally worked with Economics America, Inc. to have them send a letter to the members of the groups listed in The Right Guide as part of an effort to recruit them as site hosts. The first paragraph of the letter states:
Newt Gingrich asked that I tell the organizations listed in The Right Guide about his new nationally broadcast college course, "Renewing American Civilization." It promises to be an important event for all conservatives, as well as many young people who are not yet conservatives. You and your organization can be part of this project.(Ex. 110, PFF 19821). The letter goes on to say, "And remember, since you are a team teacher you can use the course to explain and discuss your views." (Ex. 110, PFF 19821).
In the fall of 1993, Mr. DuGally arranged for a letter to be sent by Lamar Alexander on behalf of the Republican Satellite Exchange Network promoting the course and asking its members to serve as site hosts. (Ex. 111, PFF 19795-19798). In addition, a letter was prepared for mailing to all chairmen of the Christian Coalition asking them to serve as site hosts. (Ex. 112, PFF 19815). In June of 1993, Mr. DuGally worked with the Republican National Committee to have a letter sent by Chairman Haley Barbour to RNC Members informing them of the course. (Ex. 113, RNC 0094). This letter did not solicit people to be site hosts.
Jana Rogers, the Site Host Coordinator for the course, attended the College Republican National Convention. Her weekly report on the subject said the following:
The response to Renewing American Civilization at the College Republican National Convention was overwelming [sic]. In addition to recruiting 22 sites and possibly another 30+ during follow-up, I was interviewed by MTV about the class and learned more about RESN [Republican Exchange Satellite Network] from Stephanie Fitzgerald who does their site coordination. I also handed out 400 Site Host Guides to College Republicans and about 600 registration flyers. NCRNC says it will work aggressively with their state chairmen to help us set up sites know [sic] that the convention is over.(Ex. 114, PFF 7613). She made no effort to contact any Democratic groups. (7/3/96 Rogers Tr. 78).
In notes provided by Mr. Mescon from a meeting he attended on the course, he lists a number of groups that would be targeted for mailings on the course. They include mostly elected or party officials and the notation ends with the words "25,000 / total Republican mailing." (Ex. 115, Mescon 0263). According to Mr. Mescon, the course was being marketed to Republicans as a target audience and he knew of no comparable mailing to Democrats. (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 112-113).
In an August 11, 1993, memorandum from Mr. DuGally, a WPG employee who worked on the course, he lists the entities where mailings for the course had been sent or were intended to be sent up to that point. They are as follows:
(Ex. 116, PFF 19794).
1. GOPAC farm team 9,000 2. Cong/FONG/Whip offices 4,000 3. Sent to site hosts 5,500 4. College Republicans 2,000 5. American Pol Sci Assoc 11,000 6. Christian Coalition leadership 3,000 7. The Right Guide list 3,000
In June of 1994, John McDowell wrote to Jeff Eisenach with his suggestions about where to market the course during that summer. The groups he listed were the Eagle Forum Collegians; the National Review Institute's Conservative Summit; Accuracy in Academia; Young Republicans Leadership Conference (Mr. McDowell was on their Executive Board); Young America's Foundation, National Conservative Student Conference; College Republican National Conference; the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting; and the Christian Coalition, Road to Victory. (Ex. 117, PFF 3486-3489). At a number of these meetings, Mr. Gingrich was scheduled to be a speaker. (Ex. 117, PFF 3486-3489).
A site host listing dated August 18, 1994, identifies the approximately 100 site hosts as of that date. (Ex. 118, PFF 7493-7496). These include businesses, community groups, cable stations, and others. In addition, some colleges offered the course either for credit, partial credit or no credit. (Ex. 119, Reinhardt 0160-0164). Based on their names, it was not possible to determine whether all of the site hosts fell within the goals set forth in the above-described documents. Some of them, however, were identifiable. For example, of the 28 "community groups" listed on the August 18, 1994 "Site Host Listing," 11 are organizations whose names indicate they are Republican or conservative organizations -- Arizona Republican Party; Athens Christian Coalition; Conservative PAC; Henry County Republicans; Houston Young Republicans; Huron County Republican Party; Las Rancheras Republican Women; Louisiana Republican Legislative Delegation; Northern Illinois Conservative Council; Republican Party Headquarters (in Frankfort Kentucky); Suffolk Republican Party. The list does not indicate whether the remaining groups -- e.g., the Alabama Family Alliance; the Family Foundation (Kentucky); Leadership North Fulton (Georgia); the North Georgia Forum; Northeast Georgia Forum; the River of Life Family Church (Georgia) -- are nonpartisan, Democratic, Republican, liberal or conservative. The list does not contain any organizations explicitly denominated as Democratic organizations. Similarly, it is not clear whether there was a particular political or ideological predominance in the businesses, cable stations and individuals listed.
Mr. Gingrich said that the efforts to recruit colleges to hold the course had been "very broad." "I talked, for example, with the dean of the government school at Harvard. Berkley [sic] actually was offering the course." (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 346). The course at Berkeley, however, did not go through the regular faculty review process for new courses, because it was initiated by a student. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 316-317). Such courses were not conducted by a professor, but could be offered on campus for credit if a faculty member sponsored the course and the Dean approved it. The student site host coordinator at Berkeley was named Greg Sikorski. (Ex. 121, JR-0000117). In the June 20, 1994 memorandum from John McDowell to Mr. Eisenach, the following is written under the heading "College Republican National Conference:" "RAC Atlanta representative to attend and staff a vendor booth. These 1,000 college students represent a good source of future 'Greg Sikorskis' ...in the sense that they can promote RAC on their campus!" (Ex. 117, PFF 3488). The faculty sponsor for the student-initiated Renewing American Civilization course was William Muir, a former speechwriter for George Bush. (Ex. 121, JR-0000117). Aside from Mr. Sikorski and Mr. Muir, Mr. Eisenach did not know if the RAC course at Berkeley had any additional university review. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 319).
The site host for the Renewing American Civilization course at Harvard was Marty Connors. (Ex. 122, LIP 00232). According to Mr. Gingrich, Marty Connors is a conservative activist. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 266). In a memorandum dated October 13, 1993, from Marty Connors to Lamar Alexander, Newt Gingrich, Ed Rogers, Jeff Eisenach, Paul Weyrich, Mike Baroody, and Bill Harris, he wrote about a "series of ideas (that included the Renewing American Civilization course) that could have significant consequences in building a new 'Interactive' communication system and message for the Republican Party and the conservative movement." (Ex. 123, WGC 06781). He goes on to write that he was working on a project to take the concept of the Republican Exchange Satellite Television, National Empowerment Television and "Newt Gingrich's 'Renewing American Civilization' lectures and make them "more interactive and user friendly." (Ex. 123, WGC 06781). The purpose for this is to have a "far greater ability for 'participatory' party building in the immediate future." (Ex. 123, WGC 06781-06782). He goes on to write, "Friends, I truly believe the next major political advantage will go to the group that figures out how to use 'interactive' communications in building a new Republican coalition." (Ex. 123, WGC 06782).
G. KENNESAW STATE COLLEGE'S ROLE IN THE COURSE
Renewing American Civilization was taught at Kennesaw State College ("KSC") in 1993. The sponsoring organization for the course was the Kennesaw State College Foundation ("KSCF"), a 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to promoting projects at KSC. The approximate expenditures for the course at KSC was $300,000. This represented 29-33% of KSCF's program expenditures for 1993. The funds raised for the course and donated to KSCF were tax-deductible.
KSCF had no role in raising funds for the course. (6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 33-36). Mr. Mescon, the course's co-teacher and Dean of KSC's Business School, wrote some letters with the help of Ms. Prochnow, GOPAC's Finance Director (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 65-68, 71-74; 7/10/96 Prochnow Tr. 58-62, 66; 7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 69), but most of the fundraising was coordinated by Mr. Eisenach, Ms. Prochnow, and Mr. Gingrich. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 68-71, 84, 97, 99; 7/17/96 Gingrich Tr. 123, 136, 137).
The course as offered at KSC was a forty-hour classroom lecture. Twenty hours were taught by Mr. Gingrich and twenty hours were taught by Mr. Mescon. While officials of KSC and KSCF considered the course to include the full forty hours of lecture (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 38; 6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 23), only the twenty hours taught by Mr. Gingrich were taped and disseminated. (6/13/96 Siegel Tr. 25-26; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 35; 6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 23). The funds raised for the course were primarily used for the dissemination of Mr. Gingrich's portion of the course to the various site host locations. (6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 22, 24; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 55-56). No one at KSC or KSCF had any role in deciding which portions of the course would be taped and disseminated or even knew the reasons for doing it. (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 36, 44-45, 58-59; 6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 23; 6/13/96 Siegel Tr. 78-79).
KSCF did not manage the course. It contracted with Mr. Eisenach's Washington Policy Group, Inc. ("WPG") to manage and raise funds for the course's development, production and distribution. In return, WPG was paid $8,750 per month.
The contract between WPG and KSCF ran from June 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. All funds raised were turned over to KSCF and dedicated exclusively for the use of the Renewing American Civilization course. KSCF's only role was to act as the banker for the funds for the course and disburse them upon a request from Mr. Mescon. (6/13/96 Fleming Tr. 24-25; 6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 103; Ex. 124, KSF 001269, Mescon 0454, KSF 003804, PFF 16934, KSF 001246). Mr. Mescon did not engage in a detailed review of the bills. He merely reviewed the bills that were provided by Mr. Eisenach or his staff and determined whether the general nature of the bills fell within the parameters of the project of dissemination of the course. (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 61-63).
When the contract between WPG and KSCF ended, the Progress and Freedom Foundation ("PFF") assumed the role WPG had with the course at the same rate of compensation. PFF was also a 501(c)(3) tax exempt organization, but its status as such was not used while the course was at KSC. Mr. Eisenach was the founder and president of PFF. KSCF and KSC had little or no role in supervising the course or its dissemination. Since the course was a "Special Topics" course, it did not need to go through formal approval by a curriculum committee at KSC -- it only required Mr. Mescon's approval. (6/13/96 Siegel Tr. 15-16, 30, 32, 76-77). While Mr. Mescon was given advance copies of Mr. Gingrich's lectures, he had little input into their content. (6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 22; 6/13/96 Desmond Tr. 63). Mr. Mescon described his role more in terms of having his own 20 hours to put forth any counterpoint or objection to any of the material in Mr. Gingrich's lectures. (6/13/96 Mescon Tr. 40-41).
Shortly after PFF took over the management of the course, the Georgia Board of Regents passed a resolution prohibiting any elected official from teaching at a Georgia state educational institution. This was the culmination of a controversy that had arisen around the course at KSC. The controversy pertained to objections voiced by KSC faculty to the course on the grounds that it was essentially political. (Ex. 127, KSC 3550-3551, 3541, 3460, 3462). Because of the Board of Regent's decision and the controversy, it was decided that the course would be moved to a private college. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 47-50).
H. REINHARDT COLLEGE'S ROLE IN THE COURSE
Reinhardt College was chosen as the new host for the course in part because of its television production facilities. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 14). The 1994 and 1995 courses took place at Reinhardt. While there, PFF assumed full responsibility for the course. It no longer received payments to run the course. Rather, it paid Reinhardt to use the college's video production facilities. All funds for the course were raised by and expended by PFF under its tax-exempt status. The approximate expenditures for the course were $450,000 in 1994 and in $450,000 in 1995. At PFF this represented 63% of its program expenditures for its first fiscal year (which ended March 31, 1994) and 35% of its program expenditures for its second fiscal year (which ended March 31, 1995).
Reinhardt had a curriculum committee review the content of the course before deciding to have it presented on its campus. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 15-16). The controversy over the course at KSC, however, affected the level of involvement Reinhardt was willing to assume in regard to the course. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 44-48, 51-53, 59-66; 6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 26-27). In this regard, Reinhardt's administration saw a distinction between the "course" and a broader political "project." As stated in a memorandum from Mr. Falany, Reinhardt's President, to Mr. Eisenach dated November 11, 1993:
First, there seems to be a "project", which is Renewing American Civilization, of which the "course" is a part. This distinction is blurred at times in the Project Overview. When you refer to the "project" it seems to imply a broader political objective (a non-welfare state). This is not to say that this political objective should be perceived as being negative, but it should, in fact, be seen as broader than and distinct from the simpler objective of the "course."(Ex. 128, Reinhardt 0225). Because of this concern, Reinhardt administrators agreed to be involved only in the actual teaching of the course on its campus and would not participate in any other aspects of the project. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 51-53, 59-66; 6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 26-27). In this regard, Mr. Falany made it clear to the faculty and staff at the college that:
It is important to understand that, for the Winter Quarter 1994, the College will offer the course and teach it -- that is the extent of our commitment. At the present time, the Progress and Freedom Foundation will handle all of the fund raising associated with the course; the distribution of tapes, text and materials; the broadcasting; and the handling of all information including the coordination of off-campus sites.(Ex. 129, Reinhardt 0265).
As was the case at KSC, Reinhardt administrators considered the course to be the forty hours of lecture by both Mr. Gingrich and Ms. Minnix. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 74-76). Again, only Mr. Gingrich's portion of the course was disseminated outside of Reinhardt. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 53-54; 6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 48-49). Ms. Minnix had little contact with Mr. Gingrich, and no input into the content of the course in 1994. In 1995 she had only limited input into the content of the course. (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 20-22). Similarly, Mr. Gingrich and his associates provided no input as to Ms. Minnix's portion of the course. (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 31-32).
While Mr. Falany did not know the purpose for disseminating the course, and made no inquiries in that regard (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 48-50; 54-66; 84-85), Ms. Minnix did have some knowledge in this area. Based on her contacts with the people associated with the course, she believed Mr. Gingrich had a global vision of getting American civilization back "on track" and that he wanted to shape the public perception through the course. (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 59-60). She felt there was an "evangelical side" to the course, which she described as an effort to have people get involved in politics, run for office, and try to influence legislation. (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 70-71). Ms. Minnix felt uncomfortable with this "evangelical side." (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 70). Furthermore, as reflected in her memorandum of the November 1, 1994 meeting with Mr. Gingrich and others, she was aware that the course was to be used to let people know what Mr. Gingrich's political agenda would be as Speaker. (6/12/96 Minnix Tr. 53-59; Ex. 92, Reinhardt 0064). As with KSC, one of the reasons Reinhardt administrators wanted to have the course taught on its campus was to raise profile of the school. (6/12/96 Falany Tr. 112-113).
I. END OF RENEWING AMERICAN CIVILIZATION COURSE
Although Mr. Gingrich had intended to teach the course for four years, through the 1996 Winter quarter, he stopped teaching it after the 1995 Winter quarter. According to most of the witnesses interviewed on this subject, the reason for this was that he had run out of time in light of the fact that he had become Speaker. (7/12/96 Eisenach Tr. 280; 6/28/96 Hanser Tr. 52-53). On the other hand, Mr. Gingrich says that he had learned all he could from teaching the course and had nothing new to say on the topics. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 364). Mr. Gingrich refused to support the efforts of PFF in regard to the course at that point, largely because he was disappointed with Mr. Eisenach's financial management of the course. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 365-366). Mr. Eisenach had indicated to Mr. Gingrich that the course was $250,000 in debt and that PFF had used its own resources to cover this shortfall. (Ex. 130, GDC 11325). Mr. Gingrich was skeptical of this claim, offered to have the records reviewed, and stated that he would help raise any amount that the review disclosed was needed. According to Mr. Gingrich, this offer was not pursued by Mr. Eisenach. (7/18/96 Gingrich Tr. 367-368).
Other Sections of the Gingrich Ethics Report
I. Introduction II. Summary of Facts Pertaining to American Citizens Television III. Summary of Facts Pertaining to "Renewing American Civilization" IV. Ethics Committee Approval of Course V. Legal Advice Sought and Received VI. Summary of the Report of the Subcommittee's Expert VII. Summary of Conclusions of Mr. Gingrich's Tax Counsel VIII. Summary of Facts Pertaining to Statements Made to the Committee IX. Analysis and Conclusion X. Summary of Facts Pertaining to Use of Unofficial Resources XI. Availability of Documents to Internal Revenue Service Appendix