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  Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation-Harvard University Gender Poll Results

Thursday, March 26, 1998

This Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard University study is based on random telephone interviews with 1,202 adults on Aug. 14-Sept. 7, 1997. The margin of error is plus or minus 3.0 percentage points.

1.1 (Asked of half sample) First, I'm going to read you a list of topics in the news and in everyday life. For each one, please tell me if you feel you know a great deal about it, a fair amount, only a little, or nothing at all:

A. Foreign Policy


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    20      6        14      80     38      42       1       0
9/7/97 Male   27      7        20      72     34      38       1       0
9/7/97 Female 13      5         8      87     41      46       *       0

B. Health care


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    52     20        32      48     33      15       *       0
9/7/97 Male   47     18        29      53     32      21       0       0
9/7/97 Female 56     22        35      43     34      10       *       0

C. What's going on in your immediate neighborhood


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    51     20        32      48     30      18       *       0
9/7/97 Male   51     19        32      49     28      21       *       0
9/7/97 Female 52     21        32      48     33      15       0       0

D. What's going on in the local schools


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    41     17        23      57     32      25       2       *
9/7/97 Male   37     14        22      62     33      29       1       *
9/7/97 Female 44     20        24      54     32      22       2       *

E. The budget deficit


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    26     10        16      73     39      34       1       *
9/7/97 Male   32     11        21      67     34      33       1       *
9/7/97 Female 21      9        12      78     44      35       1       0

F. The price of gasoline at the station


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ----Quite a lot------    ---Not much at all--        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    75     39        36      24     15       9       1       *
9/7/97 Male   77     41        35      22     15       7       *       *
9/7/97 Female 73     36        37      25     15      11       1       *

G. The day-to-day problems and concerns of your parents and in-laws


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    50     22        28      35     22      13       15      *
9/7/97 Male   46     21        25      42     25      17       11      1
9/7/97 Female 54     23        30      28     19      10       18      0

H. Your family's financial affairs and tax situations


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    72     38        34      27     14      13       *       0
9/7/97 Male   71     37        34      29     14      16       *       0
9/7/97 Female 74     40        34      26     15      11       *       0

I. Your children's friends and their activities


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    52     25        28      23     13      10       25      0
9/7/97 Male   47     20        27      27     13      14       26      0
9/7/97 Female 57     29        28      19     12       6       24      0

1.2 (Asked of half sample) First, I'm going to read you a list of topics in the news and in everyday life. For each one, please tell me if you feel you know a great deal about it, a fair amount, only a little, or nothing at all:

A. Education


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    54     20        34      45     32      13       1       *
9/7/97 Male   52     19        33      46     32      15       1       1
9/7/97 Female 56     21        35      43     32      11       1       0

B. The national economy


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    35     12        24      64     44      20       *       *
9/7/97 Male   44     17        27      56     40      16       0       0
9/7/97 Female 28      7        21      71     48      23       *       1

C. What's going on in your church or other place of worship


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    44     20        23      46     18      28       11      *
9/7/97 Male   37     16        21      48     17      31       14      0
9/7/97 Female 49     24        25      43     18      24        7      1

D. The price of groceries in the supermarket


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    74     34        40      25     18       7       *       1
9/7/97 Male   64     30        35      35     24      11       *       0
9/7/97 Female 84     39        45      15     12       3       1       1

E. National defense


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    22      6        15      78     46      32       *       *
9/7/97 Male   32     11        22      68     42      26       *       0
9/7/97 Female 12      3        10      87     49      38       1       *

F. What your local representative in Congress is doing


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    16      5        10      82     35      48       1       *
9/7/97 Male   19      6        13      80     35      46       1       0
9/7/97 Female 13      4         8      84     35      50       2       1

G. The personal problems of your close friends


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    46     22        25      52     29      23       1       0
9/7/97 Male   41     19        23      57     30      27       2       0
9/7/97 Female 51     24        27      48     29      19       1       0

H. What goes on at your spouse's or partner's place of work


                 Great Deal/              Only some/
             ---Quite a lot----       --Not much at all---        
                   Great     Quite                 Not much           No
             NET    deal     A lot    NET    Some   at all    N/A    Opin.
9/7/97 All    43     20        23      27     15      12       30      0
9/7/97 Male   44     20        24      29     15      13       27      0
9/7/97 Female 42     20        21      25     14      11       33      0

3. As you may know, though women have moved into the work force in great numbers, very few top level executive and professional positions in this country are filled by women. There may be many reasons that there are so few women in these positions. Here is a list of some of possible reasons. For each one, please tell me whether you think it is a major reason, a minor reason, or not a reason why.

A. Men don't want women to get ahead in the workplace


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       52              33              15              *
9/7/97 Male      43              37              20              *
9/7/97 Female    60              29              11              *

B. There are few women in high corporate positions to inspire other women to follow

            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       40              41              17              1
9/7/97 Male      38              41              19              2
9/7/97 Female    42              41              15              1

C. The doors have not been open to women long enough for many women to have made it to the top


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       55              31              14              *
9/7/97 Male      53              30              17              *
9/7/97 Female    57              32              11              *
D. Most men are better suited emotionally to be executives than most women are
            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       16              30              53              1
9/7/97 Male      16              31              53              1
9/7/97 Female    16              30              53              1

E. Women are more likely to bring personal and family problems to the workplace, and that interferes with their job performance

            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       23              40              37              *
9/7/97 Male      22              39              39              0
9/7/97 Female    23              40              36              1

F. Because of family responsibilities, women can't work as many hours as men, and it affects their opportunities to advance


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       48              34              17              *
9/7/97 Male      42              38              20              *
9/7/97 Female    55              30              15              *

G. Women don't want to do the social activities after work that men do to advance their careers

            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       18              41              39              1
9/7/97 Male      14              42              44              1
9/7/97 Female    21              41              36              2

H. Women are not as willing as men to move to different cities to advance their careers


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       31              39              29              1
9/7/97 Male      28              41              30              2
9/7/97 Female    34              38              27              1

I. Women are less likely than men to have a more senior person who will take them under their wing and help their careers

        Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       40              37              21              2
9/7/97 Male      38              37              24              1
9/7/97 Female    42              36              19              3

J. Women have inadequate education and training for management leadership


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       18              30              52              *
9/7/97 Male      18              27              55              *
9/7/97 Female    19              32              49              *

K. Women don't want to be top executives or professionals


            Major reason    Minor reason    Not a reason    No opinion
9/7/97 All       11              34              54              1
9/7/97 Male      12              33              54              *
9/7/97 Female    10              35              54              2

4. Do you feel women are discriminated against or not in:

A. Getting a college education


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         16                     83                    1
9/7/97 Male        16                     84                    *
9/7/97 Female      17                     82                    1

B. Getting into graduate professional schools, such as medical schools and law schools


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         27                     69                    4
9/7/97 Male        23                     74                    3
9/7/97 Female      31                     64                    5

C. Obtaining executive positions in business


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         66                     32                    2
9/7/97 Male        59                     40                    1
9/7/97 Female      73                     24                    3
D. Being given leadership responsibility in groups with both men and women

             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         56                     42                    3
9/7/97 Male        48                     51                    1
9/7/97 Female      62                     34                    4

E. Obtaining loans and mortgages in their own name


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         47                     48                    5
9/7/97 Male        43                     52                    5
9/7/97 Female      51                     45                    4

F. Obtaining top jobs in the military services


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         68                     25                    7
9/7/97 Male        61                     33                    6
9/7/97 Female      75                     18                    7

G. Getting equal salaries with men for doing similar work


             Are Discriminated    Are not discriminated    No opinion
9/7/97 All         73                     25                    1
9/7/97 Male        66                     33                    1
9/7/97 Female      80                     19                    1

9. Where you work, are women paid more, less, or about the same as men for doing the same job?


              More    Less    About the same    Not app. (Vol.)   No opin.
9/7/97 All      1      13           74                 9              2
9/7/97 Male     1       4           81                12              2
9/7/97 Female   2      22           67                 6              3

10. (Asked of those who work for someone else) Where you work, do women have about the same chance as men for promotion or advancement to top executive and professional positions, or are there usually limits to how far women can advance?

            Same Chance    Limits    Not app. (Vol.)    No opinion
9/7/97 All      70           23             6                2
9/7/97 Male     76           16             7                1
9/7/97 Female   63           30             5                2

11. (Asked of those who work for someone else) Would you like to have a top executive or professional position where you work, or isn't that something you'd be interested in doing?


              Yes    No    Not app. (Vol.)    No opinion
9/7/97 All    36    57          6                 1
9/7/97 Male   38    56          5                 1
9/7/97 Female 34    59          7                 *

12. (Asked of those who work for someone else) Is there someone in a more senior position at work who you think has actively assisted you in getting ahead in your career, or not?


              Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All     45    54        1
9/7/97 Male    45    54        1
9/7/97 Female  45    54        1

13. (Asked of those who are employed by someone else and had someone in a senior position assist them in getting ahead in their careers) Is that person a man or a woman?


              Man    Woman    No opinion
9/7/97 All    56     43           1
9/7/97 Male   70     29           *
9/7/97 Female 40     58           2

14. (Asked of those who are employed by someone else and had someone in a senior position assisted them in getting ahead in their careers) As part of discussions about advancing your career, has this person ever given you advice about your personal life, or not?


             Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All    27    73          0
9/7/97 Male   30    70          0
9/7/97 Female 24    76          0

23. (Asked of those who have a spouse/partner that is employed) Does your (spouse/partner) work full-time or part-time?


             Full Time    Part Time    No opinion
9/7/97 All       88           12             0
9/7/97 Male      80           20             0
9/7/97 Female    96            4             0

23.2 (Asked of those who have a spouse/partner that is employed) Do you happen to know the name of your spouse's or partner's immediate supervisor or boss at work?


              Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All     69    31          0
9/7/97 Male    64    36          0
9/7/97 Female  72    28          0

23.3 (Asked of those who have a spouse/partner who is employed) Who has a higher income, you or your spouse/partner?


            Respondent    Spouse    Same    No opinion
9/7/97 All      46          46        7          1
9/7/97 Male     72          19        8          1
9/7/97 Female   19          74        6          1

24. Have you, yourself, ever moved to another city because your spouse or partner changed jobs?


              Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All     18    82          0
9/7/97 Male     7    93          0
9/7/97 Female  27    73          0

25. (Asked of those who moved because their spouse or partner changed jobs) Did that move help or hurt your own career, or didn't it make much difference?


               Help    Hurt    No Difference    No opinion
9/7/97 All      20      19          61                *
9/7/97 Male     35      21          42                2
9/7/97 Female   16      19          66                0

26. Here are some statements which people have made about work. For each one, would you tell me whether you yourself agree or disagree:

A. (Asked of those who are employed and married/living as married) Having the type of job I do makes it harder for me to do things for my family


              ---------Agree----------    -------Disagree----------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     37      20         17       62      22         40        1
9/7/97 Male    37      19         17       62      22         41        1
9/7/97 Female  37      21         17       62      22         40        1
B. (Asked of those who are employed, married/living as married, and have children age 17 and under) I feel bad about leaving my kids in the morning when I go to work

              ---------Agree----------    -------Disagree----------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     53      29         24       43      19         24        4
9/7/97 Male    54      28         26       45      19         25        1
9/7/97 Female  53      30         23       40      18         22        7
C. (Asked of those who are employed, married/living as married, and have children age 17 and under) When my children's day care arrangements fall through, and I'm late or absent, it causes problems at work

              ---------Agree----------    -------Disagree----------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     47      27         20       45      15         30        8
9/7/97 Male    48      25         23       46      16         29        7
9/7/97 Female  46      29         17       43      12         31       11
D. (Asked of those who are employed and married/living as married) The demands of my family make it hard for me to devote complete attention to my job

              ---------Agree----------    -------Disagree----------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     28       8         19       72      27         45        0
9/7/97 Male    23       6         17       77      26         50        0
9/7/97 Female  33      11         22       67      28         38        0
E. (Asked of those who are employed and married/living as married) I have not achieved everything I could have in my career, because of the sacrifices I have made for my family

              ---------Agree----------    -------Disagree----------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     37      21         16       62      13         49        *
9/7/97 Male    33      16         16       67      13         54        *
9/7/97 Female  43      27         16       57      14         42        0

27. (Asked of those who agree that they have not achieved everything they could have in their careers, because of the sacrifices they have made for their families) Does that bother you a lot, a little, or not at all?


              -----A lot/A little-----
              NET    A lot    A little     Not at all    No opinion
9/7/97 All     59     12          47           40              *
9/7/97 Male    51     12          39           49              0
9/7/97 Female  68     13          55           31              1

28. I'm going to read you a list of some goals that different people value in their lives. Some people say these things are very important to them. Other people say they are not so important. Please tell me how important each thing is to you personally. How about (READ EACH ITEM)?Is that one of the most important things in your life, very important but not most, somewhat important, or not important? How about (READ NEXT ITEM) is it:

A. Being successful in a high-paying career or profession

             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All        9           32           39            20           *
9/7/97 Male       9           37           40            14           0
9/7/97 Female     8           28           38            26           1
B. Having lots of free time to relax or do things you want to do
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All        8           41           43             8           1
9/7/97 Male       8           42           42             7           1
9/7/97 Female     8           39           44             9           1
C. Having a successful marriage
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       31           55            7             7           1
9/7/97 Male      31           56            7             6           1
9/7/97 Female    31           54            7             7           1
D. Having close friends you can talk to about things that are happening in your life
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       14           51           26             9           *
9/7/97 Male      15           47           28            10           *
9/7/97 Female    14           55           24             7           *
E. Having close relationships with your relatives
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       17           54           22             6           *
9/7/97 Male      15           49           26             9           1
9/7/97 Female    19           59           18             4           *
F. Living a very religious life
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       15           37           30            18           *
9/7/97 Male      15           33           29            23           1
9/7/97 Female    15           41           31            12           0
G. Being a good parent
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       41           54            2             2           1
9/7/97 Male      39           55            3             2           1
9/7/97 Female    43           53            1             2           1
H. Having a satisfying sexual relationship with a spouse or partner
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       15           58           18             9           1
9/7/97 Male      19           60           18             3           0
9/7/97 Female    12           57           17            13           1
I. Having an active sex life
             One of most     Very       Somewhat        Not          No
              Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All       14           44           30            12           *
9/7/97 Male      16           52           27             4           *
9/7/97 Female    11           35           33            21           *

29. Considering everything, do you think it would be better if men behaved more like women, or if women behaved more like men?


              Men behaved      Women behaved    Neither    Both      No 
            more like women    more like men    (Vol.)    (Vol.)    opin.
9/7/97 All        34                11            42         7        7
9/7/97 Male       24                17            42         9        9
9/7/97 Female     42                 6            43         5        5

30. All things considered, in our society today, do you think there are more advantages to being a man, or more advantages to being a woman?


               Man    Woman    No difference (vol.)    No opinion
9/7/97 All      60      20            17                    3
9/7/97 Male     60      19            18                    3
9/7/97 Female   60      21            16                    2

31. What do you think is the main reason for any differences there might be between men and women? Is it mainly because of the way men and women are brought up, or are the differences part of their biological makeup?


                 Brought    Biological    Both        No               
                   up         Makeup     equally    opinion
9/7/97 All         50           37         12          1
9/7/97 Male        44           43         11          1
9/7/97 Female      55           31         12          1

32. Generally speaking, how well do you think most men understand the problems that women face: Very well, fairly well, not too well, or not well at all?


              --Very/Fairly Well--    -Not Too Well/Not well at all-   No
              NET    Very    Fairly    NET   Not Too    Not at all    Opin.
9/7/97 All     34      4       30       66      46          20          *
9/7/97 Male    33      5       27       67      48          19          0
9/7/97 Female  35      4       32       64      44          20          *

33. Generally speaking, how well do you think most women understand the problems that men face: Very well, fairly well, not too well, or not well at all?


              --Very/Fairly Well--    -Not Too Well/Not well at all-   No
              NET    Very    Fairly    NET   Not Too    Not at all    Opin.
9/7/97 All     64     13       52       35      26           9          *
9/7/97 Male    56     10       47       43      31          13          *
9/7/97 Female  71     15       56       28      22           6          *

34. (Asked of half sample) For each of the following, would you personally prefer to deal with a man or a woman?

A. Doctor
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        36      35         29            *
9/7/97 Male       45      21         34            0
9/7/97 Female     28      47         24            1
B. Car salesperson
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        39      31         29            1
9/7/97 Male       41      26         33            0
9/7/97 Female     38      35         25            2
C. Elementary school teacher
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All         8      61         30            *
9/7/97 Male        5      65         30            0
9/7/97 Female     11      58         31            *
D. Barber or hairdresser
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        23      49         28            0
9/7/97 Male       29      40         30            0
9/7/97 Female     18      56         26            0
E. Police officer
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        55      16         28            *
9/7/97 Male       55      14         31            *
9/7/97 Female     56      18         26            *

35. (Asked of half sample) For each of the following, would you personally prefer to deal with a man or a woman?


A. Elementary school principal
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        24      35         40            1
9/7/97 Male       21      36         42            1
9/7/97 Female     27      34         38            *
B. Electrician or plumber
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        62       5         32            *
9/7/97 Male       61       3         36            0
9/7/97 Female     64       7         29            *

C. Nurse
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All         5      67         29            *
9/7/97 Male        6      63         31            0
9/7/97 Female      4      70         26            *
D. Insurance agent
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        31      22         47            *
9/7/97 Male       26      20         54            0
9/7/97 Female     35      25         40            1
E. A supervisor at work
                               Doesn't Matter/    No
                 Man    Woman    Same (vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All        38      24         38            *
9/7/97 Male       39      15         46            *
9/7/97 Female     37      33         30            1

36. Has anyone ever told you couldn't do something because you were a (male/female--sex of R)


                Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All       28    71         *
9/7/97 Male      19    80         *
9/7/97 Female    36    63         *

36.1 (Asked of those who were told they couldn't do something because of their gender) Did that bother you a lot, a little, or not at all?


               ------A lot/A little-----
               NET    A lot    A little    Not at all    No opinion
9/7/97 All      72     48         24           28              0
9/7/97 Male     50     21         29           49              0
9/7/97 Female   82     61         21           18              0

36.2 Have you ever had sex when you didn't want to, because someone pressured you?


                Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All       21    78         1
9/7/97 Male      14    85         1
9/7/97 Female    28    72         *

37. Which of these two views comes closer to your own?:
STATEMENT A: Young boys and girls should be raised differently, with different toys and play activities.
STATEMENT B: Young boys and girls should be brought up alike, with similar toys and play activities.

             Statement A    Statement B    No opinion
9/7/97 All       28             69              4
9/7/97 Male      35             61              4
9/7/97 Female    21             76              3

38. Which of these two views comes closer to your own?
STATEMENT A: Parents should have different expectations of boys and girls when it comes to their education and careers.
STATEMENT B: Parents should have the same expectations of both boys and girls when it comes to their education and careers.


             Statement A    Statement B    No opinion
9/7/97 All       11             88              1
9/7/97 Male      11             88              1
9/7/97 Female    10             89              2

39. Generally speaking, are women capable on their own of successfully raising boys into men, or not?


                Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All       80    18         2
9/7/97 Male      74    25         1
9/7/97 Female    86    12         2

40. Generally speaking, are men capable on their own of successfully raising girls into women, or not?


                Yes    No    No opinion
9/7/97 All       68    29         3
9/7/97 Male      67    31         2
9/7/97 Female    68    28         4

41. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements (READ ITEM). Is that strongly, or just somewhat (agree/disagree) :

A. A husband's job is more important than a wife's


              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    22       12         10       76      18         58        2
9/7/97 Male   19       10          9       78      19         60        3
9/7/97 Female 24       14         10       74      18         56        2
B. For a woman, taking care of the children is the main thing, but for a man, his job is

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    51       30         21       48      18         29        2
9/7/97 Male   48       26         21       51      21         30        1
9/7/97 Female 54       34         20       44      16         28        2
C. If a company has to lay off workers, they should lay off women before men

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All     8        5          4       89      11         78        3
9/7/97 Male    8        5          3       88      13         76        3
9/7/97 Female  8        4          4       90       9         81        2
D. It may be necessary for mothers to be working because the family needs the money, but it would be better if she could stay home and just take care of the house and children

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    68       44         24       30      16         14        2
9/7/97 Male   69       43         27       29      17         12        2
9/7/97 Female 68       46         22       31      15         16        2
E. Everything about the care of children should be shared equally by both parents

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    93       83         10        7       5          2        1
9/7/97 Male   91       82          9        8       5          3        1
9/7/97 Female 94       84         10        6       4          1        *
F. It's generally better for a marriage if the husband earns more money than his wife

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    40       18         22       58      22         36        2
9/7/97 Male   35       13         23       63      25         38        1
9/7/97 Female 44       23         22       53      19         34        3
G. Society holds women to unreasonable standards of appearance and looks that men don't have to worry about

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    68       42         26       30      17         13        2
9/7/97 Male   62       33         29       37      21         16        1
9/7/97 Female 73       51         23       24      14         10        2
H. It is unfair that men are generally expected to hold a full-time job while some women have the choice to work full-time or not

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    55       24         31       44      22         22        2
9/7/97 Male   53       23         30       46      22         24        1
9/7/97 Female 57       25         31       41      21         20        2
I. There is too much pressure to have it all--marriage, family, and a successful career

              ---------Agree-----------   ---------Disagree--------    No 
              NET   Strongly   Somewhat   NET   Somewhat   Strongly   opin.
9/7/97 All    66       45         22       33      14         18        1
9/7/97 Male   61       40         22       37      16         21        1
9/7/97 Female 71       49         22       28      13         16        1

42. (Asked of half sample) Which of the following statements comes closer to your own views?
STATEMENT A: A woman can have a very successful, high-paying career and also be a very good mother.
STATEMENT B: A woman must decide between having a very successful, high-paying career or being a very good mother.


             Statement A    Statement B    No opinion
9/7/97 All       71             27              2
9/7/97 Male      68             30              2
9/7/97 Female    74             25              2

43. (Asked of half sample) Which of the following statements comes closer to your own views?
STATEMENT A: A man can have a very successful, high-paying career and also be a very good father.
STATEMENT B: A man must decide between having a very successful, high-paying career or being a very good father.


             Statement A    Statement B    No opinion
9/7/97 All       78             20              3
9/7/97 Male      76             21              3
9/7/97 Female    79             18              3

44. Thinking specifically about mothers of pre-school children, who do you respect more: mothers who work full-time outside the home or mothers who stay home full-time with their pre-school children?


                Work       Stay Home    Equal       No
              Full Time    Full Time    (Vol.)    opinion
9/7/97 All       20           51         25          4
9/7/97 Male      22           52         24          3
9/7/97 Female    19           51         26          4

45. After a couple gets divorced, who do you think is usually worse off financially, the man or the woman?


                Man    Woman    Same (Vol.)    Neither (Vol.)    No opinion
9/7/97 All       23      68          4                2               2
9/7/97 Male      32      56          6                3               3
9/7/97 Female    15      79          3                1               2

46. On average, who lives longer, men or women, or isn't there any difference in how long men and women live?


               Man    Woman    No difference    No opinion
9/7/97 All       3      78          18                2
9/7/97 Male      4      79          15                2
9/7/97 Female    2      77          20                1

47. On average, do women who work full-time earn more, less or about the same as men who work full-time?


               More    Less    About the same    No opinion
9/7/97 All       2      76          20                2 
9/7/97 Male      3      70          26                1 
9/7/97 Female    1      81          15                2

48. (Of those who think women who work full-time earn more or less than men who work full-time) Do you think the gap in pay between men and women is smaller or larger than it was 20 years ago, or is it about the same?


               Smaller    Larger    About the same    No opinion
9/7/97 All       66         13            18                2
9/7/97 Male      73          9            16                1
9/7/97 Female    60         17            20                3

50. Do you think defense spending should be increased, decreased, or kept about the same?


              Increased    Decreased    About the same    No opinion
9/7/97 All       18           27              53                2
9/7/97 Male      22           28              50                1
9/7/97 Female    14           26              57                3

51. Do you think federal spending on programs to create jobs and provide job training should be increased, decreased, or kept about the same?


              Increased    Decreased    About the same    No opinion
9/7/97 All       58           12              29                1
9/7/97 Male      53           17              29                1
9/7/97 Female    63            8              29                1

52. Do you favor or oppose the federal government providing health insurance for uninsured children?


                Favor    Oppose    No opinion
9/7/97 All       81        17           2
9/7/97 Male      76        23           1
9/7/97 Female    85        11           4

53. Do you favor or oppose making major reductions in future spending on Medicare to help balance the federal budget?


                Favor    Oppose    No opinion
9/7/97 All       29        68           3
9/7/97 Male      36        62           2
9/7/97 Female    23        73           4

54. Do you think most government affirmative action programs in hiring, promoting, and college admissions should be continued as they are, or should these affirmative action programs be limited?


             Should be continued    Should be limited    No opinion
9/7/97 All           39                    56                  5
9/7/97 Male          33                    64                  3
9/7/97 Female        44                    49                  7

58. How important is religion in your daily life--is it extremely important, very important, somewhat important, or not at all important?


             Extremely      Very       Somewhat    Not at all      No
             Important    Important    Important    Important    Opinion
9/7/97 All      24           30          34            12           *
9/7/97 Male     19           24          41            15           *
9/7/97 Female   28           36          28             8           0

59. How often do you attend religious services?


           More than    Once A   Twice A  Few Times                    No
          Once a week    Week     Month     A Year   Seldom   Never   opin.
9/7/97 All    16          28       11        18         13     13       *
9/7/97 Male   14          26       11        21         15     14       *
9/7/97 Female 19          30       12        16         11     12       0

60. About how often do you pray? Several times a day, once a day, several times a week, once a week, less than once a week, or never?


            Several   Once    Several    Once     Less Than            No
             A Day    A Day   A week    a week   Once A week  Never   opin.
9/7/97 All    37       26       12         7         10          8      1
9/7/97 Male   30       23       12        10         14         10      *
9/7/97 Female 43       29       11         4          7          6      1
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