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  Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation-Harvard University Gender Poll Results

Thursday, March 26, 1998

This Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation/Harvard University study is based on random telephone interviews with 804 adults on November 17-23, 1997. The margin of error is plus or minus 3.5 percentage points.

1. How much change do you think there has been in recent years in the relationship between men and women in their roles in families, the workplace, and society? Has there been a great deal of change, quite a lot, only some, or none at all?

                        Great Deal/               Only some/
	          ------Quite a lot----    -----Not much at all----------        
                      Great     Quite                 Not much    No
                NET   deal      A lot    NET    Some   at all    Opin.
11/23/97 All    70     32        37      30     26       4        1
11/23/97 Male   69     33        36      30     26       4        1
11/23/97 Female 70     32        38      29     26       3        1

2. For each of the following aspects of life, please tell me whether you think this change has made things easier or harder for people in this country, or whether it hasn't made much difference:

A. For parents to raise children

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     13        80            6                1
11/23/97 Male    12        80            6                2
11/23/97 Female  14        80            5                1
B. For families to earn enough money to live comfortably

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     26        65            7                1
11/23/97 Male    31        60            7                2
11/23/97 Female  22        69            8                1
C. For marriages to be successful

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     14        71           12                3
11/23/97 Male    12        70           13                4
11/23/97 Female  15        72           11                1
D. For women to lead satisfying lives

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     37        47           12                3
11/23/97 Male    42        44           10                5
11/23/97 Female  34        50           14                2
E. For men to lead satisfying lives

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     27        48           21                4
11/23/97 Male    22        53           22                2
11/23/97 Female  30        44           21                5

3. Overall, have the changes in the relationship between men and women made the lives of most Americans better, worse, or haven't they made much difference?


			Better    Worse    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All       	31	    36	    31               2
11/23/97 Male 	   	27	    36	    35               2
11/23/97 Female    	34	    37	    26               2

4. Have these changes made your own life better, worse, or haven't they made much difference?


		Better    Worse    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     30	    15	    53               2
11/23/97 Male	27	    16	    56               1
11/23/97 Female  33	    15	    50               2

5. Do you feel women are discriminated against or not:

A. In getting entry-level jobs

			Yes    No    No opinion
11/23/97 All     	36     62	     2
11/23/97 Male		28     70	     1
11/23/97 Female 	43     54	     3
B. In getting promotions to supervisory positions

			Yes    No    No opinion
11/23/97 All     	58     40	     2
11/23/97 Male		54     45	     2
11/23/97 Female 	62     35	     2
C. In getting top executive management positions

			Yes    No    No opinion
11/23/97 All     	65     32	     3
11/23/97 Male		59     37	     4
11/23/97 Female 	71     27	     2

10. (Of those who are employed by someone else) At the place where you work, how much attention is paid to the issue of sexual harassment? A great deal, quite a lot, only some, or none at all?


                      Great Deal/            Only some/
	          ------Quite a lot----    --Not much at all---        
                      Great     Quite                 Not much    No
                NET   deal      A lot    NET    Some   at all    Opin.
11/23/97 All    45     27        18      54     26      29        *
11/23/97 Male   55     34        21      45     22      23        0
11/23/97 Female 37     21        15      63     29      34        *

11. (Of those who are employed by someone else) During the past few years where you work, have there been any cases where either a lawsuit was brought or a complaint was filed with you employer about sexual harassment?


			Yes    No    No opinion
11/23/97 All     	23     72	     5
11/23/97 Male		23     70	     6
11/23/97 Female 	23     73	     3

12. (Of those who are employed by someone else and a complaint/lawsuit was filed about sexual harassment) As a result of that lawsuit or complaint, have your company's workplace policies against sexual harassment become more stringent, less stringent, or haven't they changed much?


		  More        Less 		                    No
	  	stringent   stringent   Haven't changed much        opinion
11/23/97 All       52	         1	           45                  2
11/23/97 Male	   68	         0	           30                  2
11/23/97 Female    37	         1	           59                  2

13. (Of those who are employed by someone else) How well do you think you know what would be considered sexual harassment? Very well, somewhat well, not very well, or not at all?


               --Very/Somewhat Well--    --Not Very Well/Not at all--    No
                NET    Very  Somewhat    NET   Not Very   Not at all    Opin. 
11/23/97 All    94      60      34        6        5           1          0
11/23/97 Male   92      55      37        8        6           2          0
11/23/97 Female 96      64      32        4        4           *          0

14. (Of those who are employed by someone else) Has the attention being paid to the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace made it easier or harder in each of the following areas or hasn't it made much difference? (READ ITEMS)

A. To have close friendships with someone of the other sex in the workplace

                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     18        38           44                1
11/23/97 Male    19        39           42                *
11/23/97 Female  17        37           45                1
B. To know what behavior is proper when talking with someone of the other sex
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     37        35           27                1
11/23/97 Male    37        39           24                *
11/23/97 Female  37        31           31                1
C. For single people to date another employee
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     11        52           33                4
11/23/97 Male    12        51           32                5
11/23/97 Female  11        52           34                3
D. To take someone of the other sex under your wing and help them with their career
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     20        36           42                2
11/23/97 Male    21        36           42                2
11/23/97 Female  18        36           43                3
E. To work with colleagues of the other sex
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     23        27           49                1
11/23/97 Male    24        26           48                2
11/23/97 Female  22        27           50                1
F. To speak candidly in groups at work
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     21        42           36                1
11/23/97 Male    21        43           35                1
11/23/97 Female  21        41           37                1
G. To be alone with a colleague of the other sex in an office or on business travel
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     17        45           36                2
11/23/97 Male    16        44           38                2
11/23/97 Female  18        45           35                2
H. For colleagues of different sexes to interact at work-related social events
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     23        31           44                2
11/23/97 Male    27        31           39                2
11/23/97 Female  19        32           48                1
I. For women to get promotions
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     22        31           44                3
11/23/97 Male    27        27           43                2
11/23/97 Female  18        35           44                4
J. For men to get promotions
                Easier    Harder    No difference    No opinion
11/23/97 All     18        13           67                2
11/23/97 Male    12        18           67                3
11/23/97 Female  24         8           67                1

15. (Of those who are employed by someone else) Here's a list of things some people say have changed in the workplace as a result of the attention given to sexual harassment. How often have you yourself done each of the following at the place where you work? Often, sometimes, rarely, or never? (READ ITEMS)

a. Avoided making friendships with people of the other sex

               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do 	 No (volunteered)
			   				 	     opin.
11/23/97 All      9        16         18      56         1             *
11/23/97 Male     9        17         18      54         1             *
11/23/97 Female   8        15         17      59         0             0
b. Avoided saying certain things to someone of the other sex because you didn't know whether or not it was proper
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do 	 No (volunteered)
			   				 	     opin.
11/23/97 All     21        30         16      32         1             0
11/23/97 Male    23        30         17      28         1             0
11/23/97 Female  18        30         15      36         1             0
c. Avoided taking someone of the other sex under your wing to help them with their career
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do 	 No (volunteered)
			   				 	     opin.
11/23/97 All      8        16         17      57         1             1
11/23/97 Male    11        17         17      52         2             2
11/23/97 Female   6        14         17      62         1             1
d. Avoided asking someone of the other sex for career advice
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)  No opin.
11/23/97 All     10        15         18      54         1             1
11/23/97 Male     9        13         20      56         1             1
11/23/97 Female  11        18         16      53         1             1
e. Avoided speaking candidly in groups
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)   No opin.
11/23/97 All     14        28         18      39         1             *
11/23/97 Male    16        26         17      40         1             0
11/23/97 Female  13        30         19      37         *             *
f. Avoided interacting with someone of the other sex at a work-related social event
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)   No opin. 
11/23/97 All      9        18         18      53         1             1
11/23/97 Male     9        15         21      53         1             *
11/23/97 Female  10        21         14      54         *             1
g. Avoided touching someone of the other sex
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)  No opin.
 
11/23/97 All     30        17         10      39         4             *
11/23/97 Male    33        17         10      38         2             0
11/23/97 Female  27        18         10      39         6             1
h. Avoided making compliments about how someone of the other sex looks or dresses
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)  No opin.
 
11/23/97 All     17        26         17      39         1             *
11/23/97 Male    22        27         17      33         1             *
11/23/97 Female  12        26         17      44         1             0
i. Avoided telling jokes with a sexual content
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)  No opin.
 
11/23/97 All     32        21         12      30         6             *
11/23/97 Male    36        23         12      26         3             1
11/23/97 Female  28        19         12      34         8             0
j. Criticized a colleague for what you thought might be sexual harassment of a co-worker of the other sex
               Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never   Don't do (vol.)  No opin.
 
11/23/97 All      6        19         21      52         2             *
11/23/97 Male     7        20         22      50         2             0
11/23/97 Female   5        19         20      55         1             1

16. How often do you think each of the following things happens? Often, sometimes, rarely or never?

a. Women are sexually harassed by men

   		Often    Sometimes    Rarely    Never    No opinion
11/23/97 All     57          36          6        1           1
11/23/97 Male    52          38          8        1           *   
11/23/97 Female  61          33          4        1           1
b. Men are sexually harassed by women
 		Often    Sometimes    Rarely    Never    No opinion
11/23/97 All     16          44         33        4           2
11/23/97 Male    13          41         39        6           1   
11/23/97 Female  20          48         27        3           3
c. A woman falsely files a lawsuit or complaint against a man for sexual harassment
                Often    Sometimes    Rarely    Never    No opinion
11/23/97 All     33          45         18        1           2
11/23/97 Male    33          46         19        1           2   
11/23/97 Female  34          44         18        1           3
d. A man falsely files a lawsuit or complaint against a woman for sexual harassment
                Often    Sometimes    Rarely    Never    No opinion
11/23/97 All      6          23         59       10           3
11/23/97 Male     5          19         62       12           2   
11/23/97 Female   7          26         56        7           4

17. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The federal government should enact tougher anti-discrimination laws to reduce sexual discrimination in the workplace.


		  Agree    Disagree    No opinion
11/23/97 All        54         45	         1
11/23/97 Male	    44         55	         1
11/23/97 Female     63         35	         2

18. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The federal government should enact tougher laws against sexual harassment in the workplace


		Agree    Disagree    No opinion
11/23/97 All     54         44	         2
11/23/97 Male    42         56	         1
11/23/97 Female  65         33	         2

19. Thinking specifically about mothers of elementary school-aged children, who do you respect more: mothers who work full-time outside the home or mothers who stay home full-time with their elementary school-aged children?


                 Work       Stay Home    Equal       No
               Full Time    Full Time    (Vol.)    opinion
11/23/97 All       25           49         20          6
11/23/97 Male      23           47         24          6
11/23/97 Female    26           51         17          6

20. Thinking specifically about mothers of high school-aged children, who do you respect more: mothers who work full-time outside the home or mothers who stay home full-time with their high school-aged children?


                  Work       Stay Home    Equal       No
                Full Time    Full Time    (Vol.)    opinion
11/23/97 All       30           44         17          9
11/23/97 Male      33           42         17          8
11/23/97 Female    27           46         17         10

24. (Of those females who have children under 6 and work full-time) Do you think most people you know respect you more, less, or about the same as mothers who stay home full-time with their pre-school children?


               		More    Less    About the same    No opinion
11/23/97 Female 	 21       6          71                2

25. (Of those females who have chidren under 6 and do not work) Do you think most people you know respect you more, less, or about the same as mothers who have pre-school children and work full-time outside the home?


           	  More    Less    About the same    No opinion
11/23/97 Female  26      15          56                4
* indicates percentage of less than .5%
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