RESOURCES


National Archives and Records Administration Nixon Presidential Materials
The official source for the historical materials created and received by the White House during the Nixon administration.

The Watergate Files at the Gerald R. Ford Library & Museum
This site provides an in-depth look at the scandal and how it unfolded with documents, photos and contemporary television footage.

The Woodward and Bernstein Watergate papers in the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas
This site offers a small sample of the materials found in the Ransom Center's collection of the two reporters' notes, story drafts, book manuscripts, tape recordings and research materials, as well as a finding aid. Most recently, it added a series of Bob Woodward's notes from his meetings and telephone conversations with Deep Throat, Mark Felt.


Movie


All the President's Men. Dir. Alan J. Pakula. Based on book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward. Perf. Dustin Hoffman and Robert Redford. Warner, 1976. Read Review


Books


JOURNALISTS


Berstein, Carl and Woodward, Bob. All the President's Men. (Simon & Schuster; 1974)

Bernstein, Carl and Woodward, Bob. The Final Days (Simon & Schuster, 1975)

Lukas, J. Anthony. Nightmare: Underside of the Nixon Years (Ohio University Press, 1999)

Sussman, Barry. The Great Cover-Up: Nixon and the Scandal of Watergate (Crowell, 1974)

Woodward, Bob. The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat. (Simon & Schuster, 2005)

Woodward, Bob. Shadow : Five Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate. (Simon & Schuster, 1999)


HISTORIANS


Emery, Fred. Watergate: The Corruption of American Politics and the Fall of Richard Nixon. (Crown; 1994)

Kutler, Stanley I. Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon. (Knopf, 1990)

Olson, Keith W. Watergate: The Presidential Scandal That Shook America. (University Press of Kansas, 2003)

Shepard, Alicia. C. Woodward and Bernstein: Life in the Shadow of Watergate. (iley, 2006)


PARTICIPANTS


Dean, John. Blind Ambition: The White House Years (Simon & Schuster, 1976)

Erlichman, John. Witness to Power: The Nixon Years (Simon & Schuster, 1982)

Haldeman, HR. The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (Putnam, 1994)

Hunt, E. Howard. American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate and Beyond (Wiley, 2007)

Liddy, Gordon. Will: The Autobiography of Gordon Liddy (St. Martin's, 1996)

Magruder, Jeb Stuart. An American Life: One Man's Road to Watergate (Atheneum, 1974)

Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Simon & Schuster, 1990)

Sirica, John J. To Set the Record Straight: The Break-in, the Tapes, the Conspirators, the Pardon. (Norton, 1979)


Documents (pdf)


White House Statements During Investigation (Aug. 15, 1973)
Source: Office of the White House Press Secretary

Report of Special Prosecutor (Dec. 31, 1973)

President Nixon's Letter of Resignation (Aug. 9, 1974)
Source: National Archives and Records Administration

President Nixon's Letter of Resignation (Aug. 9, 1974)
Source: National Archives and Records Administration

Documents Declassified by the CIA June 26, 2007
Source: Central Intelligence Agency

MARK FELT ("DEEP THROAT") FBI MEMOS (pdf)


February 21, 1973, Memo

Sept. 11, 1972, Memo

April 19, 1973, Request For Polygraph of Stenographer

June 21, 1972: Felt Memo Calling For Sweep of Democratic Party Offices

Felt Memo Attacking Woodward and Bernstein for FBI Agent Interview


WOODWARD'S NOTES FROM MEETINGS WITH MARK FELT (DEEP THROAT)
Source: Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin


Notes From Parking Garage Meeting (Oct. 9, 1972)
This meeting helped the Post expose the Watergate burglary as part of a larger program.

Notes From Parking Garage Meeting (Jan. 24, 1973)
At an early morning meeting, Felt told Woodward that Attorney General John Mitchell and Special Counsel to the President Charles Colson were behind the Watergate break-ins. Woodward and Bernstein could not agree on whether they had enough corroborating evidence to write a story based on Felt information and they held back.

Notes From Meeting at a Bar in Prince George's County, Md. (March 5, 1973)
At the meeting Felt relayed Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray's account of a meeting between Gray and Nixon and discussed Nixon's "rage" over leaks to the media. Included are Carl Bernstein's notations.

Notes From Meeting at Undisclosed Location (March 24, 1973)
At this meeting, Felt provided information on wiretapping.

Notes From On-The Record Telephone Interview (July 1973)
Woodward's interview with Felt shortly after his retirement from the FBI. Felt was quoted and identified in Woodward and Bernstein's July 28, 1973 Post article "Ex-FBI Aide Defends Ellsberg Investigation."


Nixon Speeches


Remarks on Departure From the White House (Aug. 9, 1974)
Source: Nixon Library

Nixon Announces Decision to Resign (Aug. 9, 1974)
Source: Nixon Library

National Address on the Watergate Investigations (April 30, 1973)
Source: Nixon Library

Statement About the Watergate Investigations (Aug. 15, 1973)
Source: Nixon Library

Address to Nation on House Judiciary Committee Subpoena for Additional Presidential Tape Recordings (April 29, 1974)
Source: Nixon Library


Tape transcripts


All from the National Archives and Records Administration. All tapes were recorded in the White House Oval Office except where noted.

Submitted as evidence in U.S. v John B. Connally:
Exhibit 1: March 23, 1971
Participants: President Nixon, John B. Connally, John D. Ehrlichman, Clifford M. Hardin, John Whitaker, George P. Schultz, J. Phil Campbell, Donald B. Rice.
Summary: A discussion of the Associated Milk Producers political action committee and the advisability of maintaining milk price supports as the 1972 general election campaign approaches.

Submitted as evidence in U.S. v John N. Mitchell, et al.:
Exhibit 1: June 23, 1972
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: "The Smoking Gun" conversation. Haldeman and Nixon discuss the progress of the FBI's investigation, especially the tracing of the source of the money found on the burglars. They propose having the CIA ask the FBI to halt their investigation of the Watergate break-in by claiming that the break-in was a national security operation.

Exhibit 2: June 23, 1972
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: A discussion of how Hunt's involvement in the Watergate break-in would point the investigators to the CIA, and potentially, Hunt's role in the Bay of Pigs debacle.

Exhibit 3: June 23, 1972
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: Haldeman discusses his meeting with Vernon Walters, deputy director of the CIA and an earlier phone call from L. Patrick Gray, the acting FBI director, to Walters regarding the Watergate break-in investigation.

Exhibit 4: Sept. 15, 1972
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Dean
Summary: A discussion of press treatment of the break-in and lawsuits; discovery of another bug in the DNC; bugs in other political campaigns; DNC lawsuits; Edward Bennett Williams; RNC countersuits; election law violations; Congress; the burglars' civil rights; The Washington Post's television and radio licenses; depositions on the private lives of DNC members.

Exhibit 5: Jan. 8, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, Charles Colson, in Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Nixon and Colson discuss the possible reasons why McGovern was bugged, with some apparent confusion on the part of the President. This conversation also sheds some light on the CIA connection between Liddy and Hunt, along with Colson's attitude towards both men.

Exhibit 10: March 17, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Dean
Summary: A discussion between the President, Dean, and Haldeman in which the President counsels Dean on possible testimony. Also discussed: Using the FBI for non-political purposes; a rationale for the Watergate break-in; President compares the Watergate hearings with the Alger Hiss case.

Exhibit 11: March 20, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: This conversation between the President and Haldeman reveals the President's growing frustration with the Watergate affair. Haldeman pleads with the President to protect their "friends" on the Watergate side; Haldeman tries to convince the President he will survive this crisis; concern over Mitchell's knowledge of Liddy's intelligence operation. Haldeman is fatalistic about his own fate; he believes he will be a fall guy to protect others.

Exhibit 12: March 21, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Dean
Summary: The "Cancer on the Presidency" conversation. Dean recaps the history of the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up for the President. They guess at who was responsible for setting the break-in in motion. Dean tells the President that the cover-up is "a cancer on the Presidency" that must be excised or his Presidency would be in danger. Also discussed: references to blackmail, perjury; discussion of paying the burglars off with one million dollars.

Exhibit 13: March 21, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, John Dean, John Ehrlichman, H. R. Haldeman, in Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Dean advises the President about Hunt's involvement; attempts to shield the President from any wrong-doing; payment of money to Hunt. Also discussed: the President's relationship with Dean, and how the President was dependent on Dean's advice.

Exhibit 14: March 21, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, Charles Colson (White House telephone)
Summary: Topics discussed: Colson's insistence that Watergate was still strictly a Washington story; Dean's liability for obstruction of justice; Dean's "double privilege"; Colson recommends a special counsel to deal with the President's mounting problems.

Exhibit 15: March 22, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: Subjects covered include: the possible use of $350,000 in campaign contributions to pay the Watergate defendants; appearance as obstruction of justice; a plan to distance the President and his closest associates from John Mitchell and Watergate.

Exhibit 16: March 22, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, John Dean, John Ehrlichman, H. R. Haldeman, John Mitchell
Summary: Topics discussed include executive privilege; testimony of White House staff in open hearings; conduct of Senate Watergate hearings; Segretti dirty tricks; public relations problem of invoking executive privilege; Dean's as counsel.

Exhibit 17: March 27, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, Ronald Ziegler
Summary: Subjects covered include: public relations aspects of Watergate; Mitchell's role in the break-in; Hunt's testimony before the Grand Jury; possible immunity deal for Liddy; Dean's lack of prior knowledge of break-in.

Exhibit 18: Apr. 14, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Discussions of press coverage and the issue of campaign funding; Hunt's testimony; implications of hush money to defendants; possible grand jury appearance by the President; legal exposure of Dean, Haldeman, Chapin in the cover-up.

Exhibit 19: Apr. 14, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman
Summary: This conversation recounts Ehrlichman's meeting with Mitchell and his attorneys earlier that day. Topics discussed include: dissuading suspects from remaining quiet thinking they were protecting the President; origins of the break-in; Mitchell and Magruder's prior knowledge of break-in; pressure from Kleindeinst to appoint a special prosecutor; White House role in break-in.

Exhibit 20: Apr. 14, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Ehrlichman discusses his conversation with Magruder and his two lawyers; history of Operation Sandwedge (intelligence-gathering operation at the Committee to Re-Elect the President); quality of intelligence gathered from DNC; the cover-up; Gordon Strachan's perjury; Magruder's upcoming testimony; money for Watergate defendants; legal exposure of Dean, Haldeman and Colson; Mitchell's prospects in court.

Exhibit 21: Apr. 14, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman (White House telephone)
Summary: Mitchell's problems; President insists that money raised for expenses of burglary defendants was not hush money; Colson potential testimony of white House staffers before Senate Watergate Committee.

Exhibit 22: Apr. 14, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, John Ehrlichman (White House telephone)
Summary: Ehrlichman discusses the legal position of Haldeman and Dean after recent disclosures; money for Watergate defendants; prosecution of Mitchell.

Exhibit 23: Apr. 15, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, John Ehrlichman
Summary: Ehrlichman and the President discuss conversations with Gordon Strachan and Richard Kleindeinst; Kleindeinst's request for a special prosecutor; risks of special prosecutor; Colson and money for Hunt; Strachan's upcoming testimony; obstruction of justice exposure of White House Staff; Bittman's role; Colson's exposure; Liddy's testimony and sentencing prospects; Dean's role in money for defendants; Magruder's knowledge.

Exhibit 24: Apr. 16, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman
Summary: Topics include: a request for Dean's resignation letter; other bugging operations; national security justifications; plumbers operation covered by executive privilege; NSC leaks; Liddy's knowledge; questioning Dean; public relations efforts; content of Dean's resignation letter and his plea; possible immunity deal; money for Hunt; the possibility that Dean has information implicating Ehrlichman.

Exhibit 25: Apr. 16, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, John Dean
Summary:"Dean Resignation": President discusses the need to have resignations of Dean (and Haldeman and Ehrlichman) "at the ready" and offers two options, "indefinite leave of absence" or "resignation", depending on plea; Magruder questioned about Haldeman and Ehrlichman's role in cover-up; plumbers operation; Senate hearings; Segretti's dirty tricks operation; the need for open testimony; Ehrlichman's instructions to Colson regarding clemency for Hunt.

Exhibit 26: Apr. 16, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman
Summary: Topics include: possible claims of executive privilege in testimony; claim of national security; conversation with Dean about a resignation letter; previous knowledge of break-in by White House staff; possibility of announcing that Ehrlichman will continue the investigation.

Exhibit 27: Apr. 17, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: Topics discussed include: previous Dean conversations; money for Watergate defendants; Kalmbach and LaRue's role; Colson's testimony.

Exhibit 28: Apr. 17, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: Subjects discussed include: $350,000 for defendants; White House Staff knowledge of payments; Dean's testimony on conversations with the President; blackmail by defendants.

Exhibit 29: Apr. 19, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
Summary: Subjects include: blackmail by Watergate defendants; legal exposure of Haldeman, others; Dean's Report; Dean's breach of confidentiality; Mitchell's culpability.

Exhibit 31: Apr. 25, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, in Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Topics discussed include: implications of Dean's potential testimony; possibility of impeachment; need for someone to listen to the White House Tapes to review conversations with Dean; Richard Moore's fear of legal exposure; President's words regarding money for defendants.

Exhibit 32: Apr. 25, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, in Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Topics discussed include: listening to the tapes; "The Cancer on the Presidency" conversation; President's knowledge; containing the FBI investigation; Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Mitchell and Dean involvement in obstruction of justice; defendants demands for money; Fielding break-in in California; planned break-in of the Brookings Institution; clemency for Hunt; $120,000 demand from Hunt; Strachan, Haldeman receipt of bugging information; immunity for Dean.

Exhibit 33: Apr. 25, 1973
Participants: President Nixon, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, in Old Executive Office Building
Summary: Subjects covered include: discussion of the possibility that Dean recorded conversations in the Oval Office; Dean's word against the President's; the Dean Report; Dean's prospects for immunity; potential for loss of support for the Administration; White House taping system.

Exhibit 35: Transcript of a Dictabelt recording of a conversation between Howard Hunt and Charles Colson, November 1972
Summary: Topics include: Colson's need to avoid specific knowledge of details of Hunt's activities; Hunt's insistence that commitments made to defendants are not being kept; Colson's contacts with Dean.

Exhibit 37: Transcript of a Dictabelt recording of a conversation between John Ehrlichman and Herbert Kalmbach, Apr. 19, 1973
Summary: Topics include: Topics discussed include Kalmbach's upcoming testimony; his conversations with U.S. Attorney Earl Silbert; Dean cooperating in hopes of immunity; Ehrlichman's legal exposure; need to reiterate that money to defendants was a legal defense fund; need to make the point that both Kalmbach and Ehrlichman were following Dean's lead.