Middle East and North Africa in turmoil

Anti-government protests are spreading rapidly through the Middle East and North Africa. Use this chart to keep up with all of the demonstrations, day by day. Click a country on the map or the tabs below to read more.

Leader forced to resign

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NOTE: Lebanon is currently without a working government.

  • Algeria
  • Bahrain
  • Egypt
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Syria
  • Tunisia
  • Yemen

Feb. 19, 2011

Algerian police thwart a rally of pro-democracy supporters, breaking up the crowd to keep them from marching. Police brandishing clubs, but no firearms, weave their way through the crowd in central Algiers, banging their shields, tackling some protesters and keeping traffic flowing.

Feb. 12, 2011

Heavily outnumbered by riot police, thousands of Algerians defy government warnings and dodge barricades to rally in their capital, demanding democratic reforms a day after mass protests toppled Egypt's autocratic ruler. Protesters chant "No to the police state!" and "Give us back our Algeria."

Though no violence is reported, more than 400 protesters are briefly detained. Officials place the turnout at 1,500, but an estimated 10,000 actually participate in the demonstration before it is broken up. Food riots took place throughout the country in early January. Bank employers and hospital workers have led strikes demanding better pay and benefits. A group called "The Coordination for Democratic Change in Algeria" has organized another protest for Feb. 19.

July 13, 2011

A Bahraini woman jailed for reciting poems critical of Gulf kingdom's rulers during a wave of protests earlier this year is released from prison. Ayat al-Qurmezi, 20, became a celebrity among protesters after reciting poems critical of Bahrain's king and prime minister. Al-Qurmezi was detained in March. Last month she was convicted of anti-state crimes in a special security tribunal and sentenced to a year in prison.

July 5, 2011

A Bahraini opposition figure says reconciliation talks between the Sunni monarchy and the Shiite opposition start for the first time since anti-government protests erupted in the Gulf kingdom. Washington has pushed for dialogue in the strategic island nation, home to the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet. The protests that began in February - inspired by wider Arab uprisings - have been the gravest challenge to any Gulf ruler in decades.

July 1, 2011

Bahrain's biggest Shiite bloc will join reconciliation talks with Sunni rulers despite a harsh crackdown on pro-reform protests in the Gulf kingdom, party leaders say on the eve of the government-led dialogue. The decision by the group, Al Wefaq, lends important credibility to the U.S.-encouraged talks after more than four months of Shiite-led protests for greater rights and harsh crackdowns.

June 29, 2011

Bahrain's king says that an independent commission will investigate allegations that protesters' rights were violated during the deadly crackdown on anti-government unrest. King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa's announcement comes as Sunni rulers are trying to open reconciliation talks with the Shiite-led opposition, months after the regime crushed the protest campaign for greater freedoms.

June 28, 2011

A Saudi military official says that next week, the kingdom plans to pull out some units of the 1,500-strong Gulf force sent to Bahrain to help quell a Shiite-led uprising demanding more rights. An adviser to Bahrain's king says there are no plans for a full withdrawal.

June 27, 2011

The mass trial of 28 Bahraini health professionals who treated injured anti-government protesters resume in a special security court. The prosecution of 28 doctors and nurses, who are charged with participating in efforts to topple Bahrain's monarchy, signals that the kingdom's Sunni rulers do not intend to end their relentless pursuit of the Shiite-led opposition despite appeals for dialogue.

June 22, 2011

Bahraini protesters pour back to the streets after a security court sentenced eight Shiite activists to life in prison. The fast and angry reaction to the verdicts - the most significant display of unrest in weeks - underscores the volatility in the island nation after four months of unrest and raises questions about whether any credible pro-reform leaders will heed calls by the Sunni monarchy to open talks next week.

June 6, 2011

Dozens of doctors and nurses who treated injured anti-government protesters go on trial in a security court on allegations they participated in efforts to overthrow the Gulf country's monarchy. The prosecution of 47 health professionals is a sign that Bahrain's Sunni rulers will not end their relentless pursuit of the Shiite-led opposition despite officially lifting emergency rule last week. The doctors and nurses are arraigned during a closed hearing.

June 1, 2011

Eleven weeks after it called in foreign troops to crush an anti-government uprising, Bahrain announces Tuesday that it is ending the country's state of emergency and inviting opponents to join wide-ranging talks on political reform. The announcement by Bahrain's royal palace comes amid reports of a pullback of troops and tanks from some parts of the capital, Manama, which has remained under military control since the start of the crackdown March 15.

May 16, 2011

An influential Bahraini business group decides to freeze ties with Iran, Iraq and Lebanon in response to what it claims is foreign meddling during Shiite-led protests in the Gulf kingdom. The move by the Bahrain Chamber of Commerce and Industry is likely to ratchet up tensions between the small island nation - which is ruled by a Sunni monarchy and is home to the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet - and Shiite powerhouse Iran and its allies.

May 16, 2011

Bahrain's special security court postpones until next week the trial of 21 mostly Shiite opposition leaders and political activists accused of plotting against the state. The suspects - 14 in custody and the others being tried in absentia - are accused of attempting to overthrow the 200-year-old Sunni dynasty

May 8, 2011

Bahrain's king sets a fast-track timetable to end martial-law-style rule in a bid to display confidence that authorities have smothered an uprising for reforms even as rights groups denounce the hard-line measures. The announcement to lift emergency rule two weeks early, on June 1, comes just hours after the start of a closed-door trial of activists accused of plotting to overthrow the Persian Gulf state's rulers.

April 18, 2011

Gulf troops will stay indefinitely in Bahrain as a counter to perceived threats from Iran, which the island kingdom's Sunni rulers have used as a reason for their harsh crackdown on the country's Shiite opposition. Bahrain's foreign minister, Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa, told reporters that Iran is a real threat and the Gulf force is needed to counter Tehran's 'sustained campaign' in Bahrain, the host of the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet.

April 14, 2011

Bahrain's government appears to be pulling back from plans to dismantle main Shiite opposition parties after criticism from Washington and other allies. The state-run Bahrain News Agency says that authorities are holding off any action until the outcome of investigations into the main Shiite political group, Wefaq, and a smaller Shiite bloc.

April 13, 2011

Bahrain's Shiite opposition party said Wednesday that another one of its supporters, the fourth to date, had died in police custody. Al Wefaq, Bahrain's main opposition party in the Sunni-ruled Gulf country, says Haji Karim Fakhrawi died in "mysterious circumstances," while his relatives pointed to a body covered in bruises saying he had died of torture.

April 4, 2011

Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad calls on regional rival Saudi Arabia to pull its troops out of Bahrain, where they are helping a Sunni monarchy put down a Shiite-led protest movement demanding equal rights and a political voice.

April 3, 2011

Bahraini authorities lifted a ban on the main opposition newspaper after its three top editors resigned to save the paper from a campaign to muzzle anti-government media and crack down on the Shiite opposition in the Sunni-ruled Gulf nation. Al-Wasat, the country's most popular newspaper, did not appear Sunday after Bahrain's Information Ministry ordered it to close down. Al-Wasat's online edition was also blocked. The state-run Bahrain News Agency accused the paper of "unethical" coverage of the uprising against the country's rulers.

March 17, 2011

Authorities arrest at least six opposition leaders and accuse them of inciting murder and destruction of property. Opposition groups say the leaders were arrested as part of an apparently widening crackdown on protests by members of Bahrain's Shiite majority, who harbor mounting grievances against the tiny Persian Gulf state's Sunni monarchy.

March 16, 2011

Soldiers and riot police used tear gas and armored vehicles to drive out hundreds of anti-government protesters occupying a landmark square in Bahrain's capital. Demonstrators say at least two people were killed. Video: Soldiers clear out protest camp in Bahrain

March 15, 2011

The king of Bahrain declares a three-month state of emergency a day after Saudi troops enter the tiny island nation to help prop up its Sunni monarchy. The "State of National Safety," which officials say is one level below martial law, is announced by the Bahrain Information Affairs Authority and broadcast on state television.

March 14, 2011

Saudi armored personnel carriers roll over a causeway into Bahrain. The extraordinary intervention appears to demonstrate that Bahrain's neighbors will do whatever is necessary to bring an end to unrest that has threatened the region's smallest and weakest kingdom. "Bahrain is a red line," a senior Saudi official says. He says the deployment was part of an intervention authorized by the Gulf Cooperation Council in response to a direct request from Bahrain.

March 13, 2011

Security forces and protesters clashed in Bahrain during the most violent day in weeks. Witnesses in Bahrain say that more than 100 people are injured after police fire tear gas at protesters and attack them with batons. The demonstrators are trying to shut down the financial center of Manama, Bahrain's capital, on the first day of the country's workweek. Protesters throw gas canisters and stones at police.

March 11, 2011

Demonstrators in Bahrain who have been on the streets for almost a month calling for democratic reforms are attacked by government supporters brandishing sticks and knives, witnesses say. Police fire tear gas on the protesters as they attempt to march to a royal complex on the outskirts of Manama, the capital.

March 6, 2011

Thousands of Shiite opposition supporters block the entrance to the Bahraini prime minister's office but fail to disrupt a government meeting as the campaign for reform in the strategic Gulf nation enters its third week. The protesters demand that the prime minister step down because of corruption and a deadly crackdown on the opposition in which seven people were killed.

Feb. 28, 2011

Hundreds of anti-government protesters block access to Bahrain's parliament and force officials to cancel a meeting of the ruler's hand-picked envoys. The demonstration appears part of a strategy to hold rallies at sensitive locations in the capital Manama. The idea is to boost pressure on the monarchy following two weeks of marches and clashes that have left seven dead.

Feb. 24, 2011

A government spokeswoman says a prominent opposition leader will not be arrested if he returns to Bahrain, but it remains unclear whether he is free to travel. The possible return of Hassan Meshaima after months of voluntary exile in London could mark a new phase for the protest movement as the Gulf island's monarchy tries to open talks to end the most severe political crisis in decades in the nation.

Feb. 22, 2011

Tens of thousands of Shiite-led protesters fill the central district of Bahrain's capital in the largest demonstration since the campaign against the government began eight days ago. King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa also orders the release of some political prisoners in a concession to the opposition, but it is unclear how many will actually be released.

Feb. 19, 2011

Anti-government protesters stream back into Bahrain's Pearl Square roundabout Saturday to continue their push for political reforms after tanks and armored personnel carriers rumble out of the capital following an order by the crown prince for the military to withdraw.

Feb. 18, 2011

Thousands of pro-government marchers rally in Manama on Friday in support of Bahrain's king, a day after authorities cracked down on protesters and imposed a state of emergency.

Elsewhere around the Bahraini capital, armored personnel carriers remain parked on a bridge above Pearl Square, where riot police violently displaced mostly Shiite anti-government demonstrators the day before.

Feb. 17, 2011

Swelling anti-government protests in Manama are broken up in a predawn raid by police who use tear gas, clubs and rubber bullets to clear the crowd. At least two people are killed, and protesters say others are critically injured. There is no official word on casualties from Bahrain's authorities.

Hours later, tanks rumble into Manama as Apache helicopters fly overhead. Military vehicles and police block roads, and some areas are cordoned off with barbed wire. The Bahraini national security council meets and declares a state of emergency.

Feb. 14, 2011

Demonstrators face rubber bullets and birdshot to demand more freedoms in the relative wealth of Bahrain. At least 25 people are injured, and one man dies after suffering severe head trauma. Police later use vans and other vehicles to block main roads into the capital of Manama to prevent a mass gathering that organizers intend as an homage to Egypt's Tahrir Square.

The date of the protests is the anniversary of Bahrain's 2002 constitution, which brought an elected parliament and other pro-democracy reforms to the country. Bahrain is the home of the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet, which plays a major role in obstructing Iran's attempts to expand its influence in the region.

Nov. 22, 2011

Three Americans studying at the American University in Cairo have been arrested and accused of participating in the violent demonstrations that are sweeping this capital city.

Nov. 21, 2011

Pressure mounts on Egypt's military leaders as swelling numbers of protesters on the streets of Cairo dismissed a resignation offer from Egypt’s cabinet.

Nov. 20, 2011

The second day of deadly clashes has plunged the country into a political crisis that could imperil Egypt’s first post-revolt elections, just a week away.

Nov. 19, 2011

Egyptian security forces fired tear gas and rubber bullets Saturday during hours-long clashes with protesters who were trying to set up a permanent protest camp in downtown Cairo’s Tahrir Square.

Sep. 30, 2011

Thousands of Egyptians turned out in the capital’s Tahrir Square on Friday to “reclaim the revolution,” about nine months after the winter uprising that ousted an autocrat and brought the country’s military leadership to power.

July 13, 2011

Egypt sacks nearly 600 top police officers, the start of a promised cleansing of a force blamed for chronic abuses during the rule of Hosni Mubarak, state television reports. The move by Interior Minister Mansour el-Eissawy marks a first step toward meeting the main demand of protesters encamped in Cairo's Tahrir Square.

July 12, 2011

Egypt's military leaders harden their stance, saying that they will not allow the disruption of public life or the "hijacking" of their authority as they call on Egyptians to disavow protests that disturb daily routines.

July 8, 2011

Tens of thousands of Egyptians gather in Tahrir Square, the symbol of the uprising that ousted President Hosni Mubarak this year, to protest what they perceive as an unwillingness to prosecute Mubarak-era officials and police responsible for the killing of nearly 900 protesters.

July 6, 2011

Egypt's security chief says hundreds of high-ranking police officers will be sacked for their role in a harsh crackdown on anti-government protests earlier this year. Interior Minister Mansour el-Essawi says the July 14 shakeup will be the largest in the history of his ministry. He also ordered an investigation into the killings of nearly 850 protesters by police during 18-day uprising that forced President Hosni Mubarak to step down Feb 11.

July 5, 2011

Three ministers from the government of deposed president Hosni Mubarak are acquitted on corruption charges by an Egyptian court, while a fourth is found guilty in absentia, according to state media. Anger over corruption and repression generated the 18-day uprising that ended with the ouster of Mubarak in February. Now many Egyptians angrily accuse the courts of not doing enough to hold former officials accountable for their crimes.

June 29, 2011

Demonstrators and police clash outside the Interior Ministry in the Egyptian capital in the most intense battle between the two sides in months. It is unclear whether anyone was killed as fighting continues into the morning, with police surrounding protesters and the demonstrators throwing molotov cocktails at the policemen to push them back. Dozens are reported injured.

June 28, 2011

An Egyptian court orders the dissolution of more than 1,750 municipal councils, seen as one of the last vestiges of deposed President Hosni Mubarak's rule. Members of the councils were chosen in 2008 in elections said to be widely rigged in favor of the former regime, and the ruling to dissolve them meets a main demand of the protest movement that ousted Mubarak.

June 13, 2011

Egypt's most organized and powerful Islamist movement announces it intends to join forces with one of the nation's oldest liberal parties, presenting a formidable coalition for upcoming parliamentary elections. The alliance would unite the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party and the Wafd Party, a liberal party established just after World War I, to run on one candidate list in the elections scheduled for September. The move is likely to be a significant boost for the Brotherhood.

June 9, 2011

The last 19 victims among hundreds killed during Egypt's uprising that toppled President Hosni Mubarak are buried in Cairo, hailed as martyrs who sacrificed their lives for freedom. Their bodies lingered for months in Cairo's morgues, never identified or claimed by anyone, until the authorities gave the go ahead for a communal funeral. A total of 846 Egyptians were killed during the mass street demonstrations when Mubarak's police cracked down on the protesters, shooting many in the head and chest.

June 6, 2011

Hundreds of Egyptians walk in silence as the sun sets over this Mediterranean city to commemorate the anniversary of a beating death that helped spark the country's revolution. Those Alexandria streets over the past year have been the scene of furious protests, looting, clashes and finally euphoria in February when President Hosni Mubarak stepped down. The gathering today stands in stark contrast.

May 17, 2011

Egypt's Justice Ministry orders the wife of deposed President Hosni Mubarak released from custody without bail, after she relinquishes her disputed assets. Suzanne Mubarak, 70, has turned over her property and money to the state valued at some $4 million. The move aims to settle corruption allegations against her, but it is unclear whether she still faces trial.


May 12, 2011

The price tag for the labor unrest and political protests that have roiled Egypt since the outbreak of the mass demonstrations that ousted President Hosni Mubarak has reached 20.5 billion pounds ($3.5 billion), the country's finance minister says. The total is a fresh indication of the bruising taken by the economy since Mubarak's ouster in February. Worker demands for higher wages and ensuing strikes have compounded problems caused by the near-daily protests that continue in the Arab world's most populous nation.

May 7, 2011

Clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in a Cairo suburb leave 12 people dead, dozens wounded and a church charred in one of the most serious outbreaks of violence Egypt's interim rulers have faced since taking power in February. The increase in religious violence appears to catch Egypt's military rulers by surprise. They have struggled with continued unrest after a popular uprising that ousted President Hosni Mubarak on Feb. 11.

April 25, 2011

A poll released by the Pew Global Attitudes Project shows Egyptians are deeply skeptical about the United States and its role in their country, but they are also divided in their attitudes about Islamic fundamentalists. Most Egyptians distrust the United States and want to renegotiate their peace treaty with Israel, the poll found.

April 13, 2011

Egypt's top prosecutor orders former President Hosni Mubarak and his sons detained for 15 days for questioning about the origins of their family's wealth and government suppression of the protests that pushed Mubarak from office, state-run media reports.

April 8, 2011

Tens of thousands of Egyptians waved flags and shouted slogans Friday in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, demanding that Hosni Mubarak and his family be put on trial over allegations of corruption in one of the biggest protests since the longtime president was ousted two months ago.

March 30, 2011

Egypt's military rulers announce that the country's first presidential election since the ouster of Hosni Mubarak will be held by November, giving emerging political groups about eight months to organize. The announcement comes 10 days after voters overwhelmingly approve a package of constitutional amendments, but many critics fear that a rapid timetable for elections could give the advantage to the most organized political forces in the country - the Muslim Brotherhood and members of the former ruling party - rather then the newly emerging forces involved in the country's uprising.

March 22, 2011

The Egyptian Interior Ministry, long a symbol of heavy-handed repression, is set ablaze during a protest by police officers demanding more pay and better working conditions from the military-run government.

March 8, 2011

Clashes break out when a Muslim mob attacks thousands of Christians protesting against the burning of a Cairo church. At least 13 people are killed and about 140 wounded, security and hospital officials say. The Muslims torch the church amid an escalation of tensions between the two religious groups over a love affair between a Muslim and a Christian that set off a violent feud between the couple's families.

In Cairo, a mob of angry men beat and sexually assault women marchers calling for political and social equality on International Women's Day. The men - their number estimated to be at least double that of the women's - break through a human chain that other men had formed to protect the marchers. Women say they attempted to stand their ground - until the physical aggression began.

March 5, 2011

Hundreds of protesters storm the headquarters of Egypt's widely feared State Security Investigations agency in Cairo on Saturday and begin sifting through thousands of potentially inflammatory documents, marking another step toward dismantling the administration of ousted President Hosni Mubarak.

State Security was responsible for suppressing domestic political dissent, as well as for internal counterterrorism, and had a reputation for torturing detainees. The unearthed documents could provide information for cases against senior members of Mubarak's government, from the former president on down, and could prove explosive if publicized, analysts say.

Feb. 23, 2011

Former Egyptian police officers seeking to get their jobs back set fire to parts of Egypt's Interior Ministry in Cairo. The former officers set fire to vehicles and parts of the building, including the human resources offices, al Ahram newspaper reports on its Web site. The protesters seem to be reacting to a decision, announced last week, that police fired over the last year will be rehired as part of the democratization of Egypt.

Feb. 21, 2011

Egypt's top prosecutor asks the Foreign Ministry to seek help from foreign governments to seize ousted president Hosni Mubarak's assets, Egyptian state media reports. Public prosecutor Abdel Magid Mahmud says the request will also cover assets in the name of Mubarak's wife, Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal, and their wives.

Feb. 18, 2011

Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians join nationwide demonstrations to mark the fall one week ago of President Hosni Mubarak and to press the country's military leadership to implement democratic reforms. The gatherings emphasize that the Feb. 11 ouster of Mubarak was only the start of reforms that demonstrators demanded during their 18-day revolution to end his 30-year, autocratic rule.

In the center of the square, memorials are set up for the more than 330 people killed during the revolution. Demonstrators chant, "The people demand the trial of the regime."

Feb. 11, 2011

After 18 days of anti-government demonstrations, Vice President Suleiman announces on television that Mubarak has officially resigned and assigned power to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.

Feb. 10, 2011

In another speech, Mubarak refuses to relinquish the presidency despite reports by media outlets and CIA Director Leon Panetta that he would likely resign soon.

Feb. 7, 2011

Demonstrations continue despite new concessions by Mubarak's government, including pension and salary increases. Authorities release Wael Ghonim, an Egyptian executive of Google who had been detained after organizing protests.

Jan. 29, 2011

On state television, Mubarak announces he is removing his cabinet and appoints a vice president. Protesters in Tahrir Square defy the curfew, and prison breaks and looting are reported throughout the weekend.

Jan. 28, 2011

Clashes with police intensify, and deaths are reported. Overnight, the police are withdrawn and replaced with the military. The government institutes a curfew and blocks Internet access

Jan. 25, 2011

Inspired by the fall of Tunisia's longtime dictator, thousands flock to the streets in Cairo and other major Egyptian cities to denounce President Hosni Mubarak's rule.

March 1, 2011

Iranian security forces clash with demonstrators and shoot tear gas to break up a rally in support of two opposition leaders who have been targeted in a new crackdown on anti-government protests, an opposition Web site reports. Witnesses say large crowds marched along the main Enghelab (Revolution) Street, where large numbers of professional and voluntary security forces were stationed.

Feb. 20, 2011

Iranian security forces disperse anti-government protesters who tried to gather Sunday in Tehran's main squares to commemorate the deaths of two men killed during a protest Monday, witnesses report.

Official media deny reports of heavy security presence and minor skirmishes with opposition supporters, stressing that the city is completely calm. But witnesses describe large groups of protesters at several points in town and a large number of security forces out to meet them.

Feb. 14, 2011

Thousands of government supporters demand the execution of opposition leaders, but influential Muslim cleric Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati says they should be placed under permanent house arrest. The calls come as Iran's opposition movement plans new anti-government demonstrations on Sunday.

Feb. 14, 2011

Crowds of demonstrators battle security forces armed with tear gas and batons during a surprisingly large anti-government protest in Tehran, Iran that draws inspiration from the recent popular uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia. The gathering appears to be the most significant anti-government protest in the capital since security forces cracked down on a series of massive demonstrations in 2009.

Feb. 11, 2011

Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, speaking several hours before Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak stepped down, urges Egyptians to continue their protests and to "free" themselves and choose their own leaders and their own form of government. During a large state-sponsored rally to celebrate the 32nd anniversary of Iran's Islamic revolution, Ahmadinejad says that the uprisings in the Arab world have been inspired by his country's struggle against Western powers.

June 10, 2011

An anti-government protest scheduled in Iraq's capital is quashed after several participants reported being beaten with sticks and clubs to make way for a counter-demonstration. Following the end of a 100-day cooling-off period requested by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, students and activists had been expected to flock to Baghdad's Tahrir Square to press for reforms and more government services.

Feb. 27, 2011

In his latest attempt to appease a growing protest movement here, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki says he is giving his cabinet 100 days to respond to demands for better government services from electricity to jobs and for an end to corruption. Maliki has already announced other concessions, saying he will slash his salary by half and not to seek a third term. He has accepted resignations from three provincial governors from his party so far.

Feb. 25, 2011

At least 19 people are killed in Iraq as tens of thousands defiy an official curfew and gathered for a "Day of Rage" demonstration, echoing protests that have been held across the Middle East and North Africa for more than a month. Despite pleas by the government and Shiite religious leaders for Iraqis to stay home, demonstrations are reported from Basra in the south to Mosul and Kirkuk in the north. Protesters denounce official corruption and called for the resignation of local leaders.

Feb. 24, 2011

At least five people are killed in Iraq as tens of thousands defiy an official curfew and gathered for a "Day of Rage" demonstration, echoing protests that have been held across the Middle East and North Africa for more than a month. Despite pleas by the government and Shiite religious leaders for Iraqis to stay home, demonstrations are reported from Basra in the south to Mosul and Kirkuk in the north. Protesters denounce official corruption and called for the resignation of local leaders.

Feb. 17, 2011

At least two protesters are killed when soldiers open fire on stone-throwing demonstrators in the Kurdish city of Sulaymaniyah as the unrest triggered by turmoil elsewhere in the Middle East reaches the normally placid enclave of Kurdistan in northern Iraq. Forty-three people weae injured when the Kurdish pesh merga fighters fire live ammunition at youths throwing stones at the headquarters of the region's dominant political party, the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), witnesses say.

Feb. 16, 2011

The governor of a remote southern Iraqi province is forced to flee when protesters storm his headquarters during violent demonstrations that illustrate the potential for upheaval in Iraq's new, and still shaky, democracy. The violence eruptes after local police opened fire on demonstrators protesting poor services and corruption outside the governorate of Wasit province in the city of Kut, killing three and wounding more than 50, says Capt. Mahdi Abbas of the province's emergency police force.

April 15, 2011

Hundreds of protesting Islamic hard-liners clash with supporters of Jordan's king, wounding dozens, in the latest move by the extremist movement to assert itself amid the country's wave of anti-government demonstrations. A crowd of about 350 extremist Salafi Muslims face off with a slightly smaller group of king loyalists in the town of Zarqa. Salafis beat the government supporters with clubs and fists, and the two sides hurl stones at each other, leaving people bloodied on the ground.

April 7, 2011

A Jordanian man sets himself on fire outside the prime minister's office in the first such act since political unrest hit the country in January. A doctor says Mohammed Abdul-Karim is in critical condition. Similar acts of self-immolation have occurred in other Muslim countries to protest repressive governments. The protests calling for political reform in Jordan have generally been smaller and more peaceful than in other Arab nations, but one person died in a protest March 25. On Thursday, prosecutors charge 80 people with resisting arrest in that demonstration.

March 31, 2011

From the AP: Supporters of Jordan's king denounce reports alleging they were behind bloody clashes that left one person dead in the worst violence in three months of protests in this key U.S. ally. Clashes between protesters demanding reforms and government supporters also left 120 injured last Friday in a central Amman square after security forces charged the two sides, which had been pelting each other with stones.

March 25, 2011

From the AP: Pro-government supporters attack a gathering of Jordanian protesters demanding the dissolution of parliament and the firing of the country's prime minister, pelting them with stones and injuring six people. The violence comes as about 1,000 Jordanians join protests at the camp in central Amman, styled after Cairo's Liberation Square, where a popular uprising led to the ouster of Egypt's longtime president.

March 24, 2011

According to the AP, hundreds of Jordanians set up a protest camp in a main square in the capital demanding the ouster of the prime minister and wider public freedoms. From the AP: "The 500 protesters appear to be mostly university students or unemployed graduates unaffiliated with any political party. Many say met through Facebook last month to launch a group called the Jordanian Youth Movement."

March 15, 2011

Jordan's king sets a three-month deadline for agreement on political reforms. Abdullah II says a 53-member committee with government officials and opposition leaders will draft new laws for parliamentary elections and political parties - key demands in 11 weeks of protests.

March 7, 2011

In the first protest of its kind here, journalists from state-controlled media demonstrate for press freedom and demand the ouster of the editor of the main government-controlled newspaper. Inspired by the anti-government uprisings sweeping the Arab world and mounting calls for change at home, about 200 journalists from official and independent media rally near the headquarters of Al-Rai, the main state-controlled paper.

Feb. 18, 2011

Clashes erupt Friday in the Jordanian capital, Amman, when about 300 protesters calling for political reforms are set upon by government supporters armed with metal rods and sticks as police stand by, participants said. At least eight people are reportedly injured.

It is the first time protesters have been attacked during demonstrations in Amman for political and economic change, which have been held for the past several Fridays.

Feb. 13, 2011

Senior U.S. officials hold talks with Jordan's King Abdullah II as part of an Obama administration diplomatic offensive in the wake of back-to-back popular uprisings in the Middle East. The White House dispatches Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Adm. Mike Mullen and the State Department's top career diplomat, Undersecretary for Political Affairs William J. Burns, to Jordan over the weekend in a show of support for the key U.S. ally.

Feb. 11, 2011

Hundreds of Jordanians take to the streets calling for the ouster of new Prime Minister Maroud al-Bakhit and demanding elections

Feb. 1, 2011

Jordan's Royal Palace says the king has sacked his government in the wake of street protests and has asked an ex-army general to form a new Cabinet.

Jan. 28, 2011

Thousands protest in late January, peaking on Jan. 28. The demonstrations are inspired by the unrest in the region and reflect growing discontent stoked by the most serious domestic economic crisis in years as well as accusations of rampant government corruption. Demonstrators protest rising prices and demand the dismissal of Prime Minister Samir Rifai and his government, but do not directly challenged the king, criticism of whom is banned in Jordan.

March 8, 2011

Youth groups in Kuwait plan to hold demonstrations Tuesday calling for the resignation of the prime minister and for greater political freedoms, Al Jazeera reports. Two groups called the al-Soor al-Khames (Fifth Fence) and Kafi rally followers on Twitter to take to the streets on Tuesday as parliament holds its first session in six weeks.

Feb. 20, 2011

Kuwait's parliament speaker appeals for an end to three days of protests by the descendants of desert nomads demanding citizenship and the generous state benefits that go with it. Police fire tear gas to disperse the demonstrators, who hold no nationality but have settled in Kuwait for generations. They seek access to Kuwaiti benefits such as free health care and state jobs.

Feb. 18, 2011

Kuwaiti authorities use tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannons to break up a demonstration by about 1,000 stateless residents west of Kuwait City, according to Bloomberg. The proetesters were demanding greater rights for residents who are not citizens of the country.

Feb. 6, 2011

Kuwait's Interior Minister steps down amid calls for street demonstrations on social media sites. The organizers list claims of corruption and perceived attempts to limit political freedoms. After the resignation of the interior minister, Sheik Jaber al-Khaled al-Sabah (who is replaced by a relative of Kuwait's ruler), protesters reschedule planned demonstrations to March 8.

June 13, 2011

The prime minister forms a new Cabinet that gives Hezbollah far more power five months after the Iranian-backed militant group and its allies brought down the Lebanese government. Hezbollah has seen a steady rise over the past few decades from a resistance group fighting Israel to Lebanon's most powerful military and political force.

Feb. 28, 2011

In Lebanon, which has no government to rebel against because of disputes among the country's feuding political factions, demonstrators take to the streets to demand the overthrow of the sectarian system that has defined and divided the volatile country for seven decades.

More Lebanon coverage

Oct. 23, 2011

Libya top leader declared the country officially “liberated” from the four-decade rule of Moammar Gaddafi, pledging to replace his dictatorship with a more democratic but also a more strictly Islamic system.

Oct. 20, 2011

Moammar Gaddafi was killed after being seized in a sewage tunnel in his home town — the final triumph for pro-democracy fighters who have struggled for eight months to take control of the country.

Aug. 23, 2011

Rebel forces overran the heart of Moammar Gaddafi's fortified Bab al-Aziziya compound, putting them in charge of the fugitive Libyan leader's power base and signaling that the battle for Tripoli may be inching closer to a conclusion. One of Gaddafi's sons, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, appeared in public earlier in the day to refute rebel assertions that he had been captured.

Aug. 21, 2011

Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's four-decade-long rule over the country was crumbling at breakneck speed as hundreds of rebel fighters swept into Tripoli and took control Monday of the symbolically significant Green Square in the heart of the city.

Aug. 20, 2011

Libyan rebels overran a major military base defending the capital as part of a surprising and speedy leap forward, after six months of largely deadlocked civil war. By nightfall, they had advanced more than 20 miles to the edge of Gaddafi's last major bastion of support.

Aug. 19, 2011

For months, rebels fighting to oust Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi have been predicting the fall of the capital, Tripoli. Now, after weeks of significant gains, they have begun talking openly about plans to maintain security if he is deposed.

Aug. 11, 2011

Libyan rebels battling Moammar Gaddafi's troops along the country's Mediterranean coast have claimed they captured part of Brega, a strategic port city that has repeatedly changed hands in the 6-month-old civil war.

July 31, 2011

Libyan rebels battling on multiple fronts attacked and held ground Sunday in committed fighting that reached from a besieged oil refinery city in the east to the rugged desert mountain towns in the west. The success of the past few days and the still tenuous rebel advances in the mountains come at a price, as opposition commanders here worry that their lines are stretched too thin, leaving their rebel cadres composed of dentists, shop clerks and college students vulnerable to counterattack.

July 28, 2011

Gen. Abdul Fattah Younis and two other senior opposition commanders had been fatally shot in Benghazi by assailants, creating chaos among the fractious coalition trying to overthrow Moammar Gaddafi.

July 15, 2011

The United States grants Libyan rebel leaders full diplomatic recognition as the governing authority of Libya, a move that could give the cash-strapped rebels access to more than $30 billion in frozen assets that once belonged to Gaddafi.

July 13, 2011

Libyan rebels fighting to oust Moammar Gaddafi have looted shops and clinics and torched the homes of suspected regime supporters in some of the towns they seized in the country's western mountains, Human Rights Watch says. The findings come as the rebels enlarge the area under their control in the west and inched closer to a key supply route to Tripoli.

July 7, 2011

Rebel victories in Libya's western mountains are shifting the focus of efforts to topple Moammar Gaddafi's regime, as fighters close in on cities that control the government's main supply routes. The rapid gains in the west come in sharp contrast to battlefields in the east, where the front lines have remained largely stagnant for months.

July 6, 2011

Rebel fighters in western Libya seize two mountain towns from government troops, while the embattled regime of Moammar Gaddafi says it will set up a special court to try rebel leaders for treason. The rebel advances mark small progress in a largely deadlocked civil war.

July 1, 2011

With Libya's conventional forces stretched thin along front lines east and west of Tripoli, government officials say they are scrambling to train volunteers, many of them women, for the looming fight for the capital and other Gaddafi-held areas. Women have long played central roles in Libya's security and intelligence agencies, but the four-month-old conflict appears likely to turn them into combatants more forcefully than ever.

June 30, 2011

The daughter of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi says both direct and indirect negotiations are being held between her father's authorities and Libyan rebels. Aicha Gaddafi doesn't elaborate during the France-2 network interview aired on French television. But she adds to end the spilling of Libyan blood "we are ready to ally ourselves with the devil, with the rebel army."

June 29, 2011

French officials announce that they have armed rebels in Libya, in an attempt to break the stalemate in a conflict that has stretched longer than many policymakers anticipated. France dropped guns, rocket-propelled grenades and other munitions in the western Nafusa mountains of Libya in early June to help rebel forces who were at the time under threat from the Libyan military, a French military spokesman tells news services.

June 28, 2011

The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, urges Moammar Gaddafi's own aides to arrest the Libyan leader and turn him over for trial on murder and persecution charges - or risk prosecution themselves. The court has issued arrest warrants for the Libyan leader, his son Seif and intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanoussi for crimes against humanity, but the court has no police force to detain them.

June 27, 2011

Judges from the International Criminal Court issue a warrant for the arrest of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi, his son and a top military intelligence chief, calling for them to to stand trial for crimes against humanity in connection with a violent crackdown on anti-government protesters this year.

June 23, 2011

Moammar Gaddafi lashes out at NATO over civilian casualties and says Libya is prepared to fight on, calling the alliance "murderers" after an airstrike on a close associate's family home. A few hundred supporters, most of them women, gather in Tripoli's Green Square hours after the speech, vowing to defend the Libyan leader.

June 21, 2011

NATO acknowledges that it has lost contact with one of its surveillance drone helicopters, as Libyan state television broadcast pictures of what it said was an alliance attack helicopter that has been shot down. A NATO spokesman said that an "unmanned autonomous helicopter drone" lost radio contact at 9:20 a.m. local time.

June 20, 2011

NATO says a coalition bomb misfired into a residential neighborhood of Tripoli, killing civilians. Libyan officials say the blast flattened a two-story house, killing two children and seven adults. Sunday's bombing marks the first time NATO acknowledges that a military mishap has resulted in civilian deaths in Libya, and it comes a day after the alliance confirmes that last week it accidentally struck a vehicle carrying allied rebel fighters.

June 16, 2011

NATO airstrikes pound the area near Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's compound again before dawn. Russia's envoy to Libya later turns up at a bombing site while on a visit to Tripoli for talks on ending the civil war. Gaddafi's son tells an Italian newspaper that his father will not go into exile, but elections under international supervision can offer a way out. The U.S. quickly dismisses the idea and insists Gaddafi must leave.

June 14, 2011

An apparent NATO airstrike hits an area near Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's compound in the capital, as military leaders voice concerns about sustaining the operations if the alliance mission drags on. A column of gray smoke could be seen rising from the area around Gaddafi's Bab al-Aziziya compound shortly before dawn. The concussion from the blast was felt at a hotel where journalists stay in the capital.

June 13, 2011

Government artillery rains down on rebel forces but fails to stop their advance into key ground west of their stronghold at Libya's major port. As fighting rages for a fourth day, Germany's foreign minister pays a surprise visit to the rebel's de facto capital. The German foreign ministry says Guido Westerwelle is meeting with the Transitional National Council to deepen relations with the rebels and their nascent government.

June 12, 2011

From the east and west, resurgent rebels battle Libyan government forces at flashpoints along the Mediterranean coast, rebel commanders report. The government says their victory claims are "wishful reporting." Insurgents had reported fighting street by street to retake the Mediterranean port city of Zawiya, 18 miles west of Tripoli, a prize that would put them within striking distance of the capital and cut off one of Moammar Gaddafi's last supply routes from Tunisia.

June 10, 2011

Western and Middle Eastern countries begin opening the aid spigots for Libya's beleaguered rebels, approving measures that will immediately send at least $1 billion to the opposition and promising much larger sums in the weeks ahead. This comes a day after the chief financial adviser to Libya's opposition movement urged Western countries to make good on promises, saying, "Our people our dying."

June 8, 2011

NATO rains scores of bombs on the Libyan capital in by far its heaviest attack on Tripoli since its campaign began, but Moammar Gaddafi responds swiftly with a vow that his people will never surrender. The Libyan government says 60 bombs fell on the city, killing 31 "soldiers, guards and civilians." Reporters in Tripoli count more than 40 explosions.

June 4, 2011

The U.S. House of Representatives rebukes President Obama for failing "to provide Congress with a compelling rationale" for the military campaign in Libya but stopped short of demanding he withdraw U.S. forces from the fight. By a vote of 268 to 145, the House approves a resolution criticizing Obama for not seeking congressional authorization for the 76-day-old campaign against Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi.

June 2, 2011

NATO blasts Tripoli with a series of air strikes, sending shuddering booms through the city. A NATO statement says the attacks hit military vehicles and ammunition depots, a surface-to-air missile launcher and a fire control radar system. The air strikes rain down hours after NATO and its partners say they will extend the Libyan mission for 90 more days in support of the rebels fighting the regime of ruler Moammar Gaddafi.

May 31, 2011

Libyan rebels reject a reported truce offer from Moammar Gaddafi. Word of the offer comes from South African President Jacob Zuma, who met with Gaddafi the day before.

May 30, 2011

The rebel administration that controls much of eastern Libya distributes guidelines on how its fighters should treat prisoners of war, following a string of allegations that rebels have engaged in unlawful arrests, mistreated captives and killed sub-Saharan Africans wrongly accused of being mercenaries. The rebels are holding about 300 prisoners, including 10 foreigners, according to the top legal affairs official in the newly created National Transitional Council, Salwa Fawzi al-Deghali.

May 23-24, 2011

NATO forces launch their most aggressive airstrike to date on Gaddafi's compound early Tuesday morning, rocking the country's capital with at least 15 explosions. In a show of support for the rebel National Transitional Council, the United State's top Middle East envoy announces on Tuesday that the rebel government would open an office in Washington DC.

May 19, 2011

The Libyan government says that it would pull its army out of cities if rebels did the same, while a spokesman called President Obama "delusional" for saying in a speech that Moammar Gaddafi's 41-year rule over Libya would soon come to an end. The government's offer, which the spokesman described as going further than it had before, was made on the condition that NATO stop its attacks on Libyan military targets, and it remained unclear how viable the proposal was.

May 17, 2011

Reports that a top official in the government of Moammar Gaddafi has defected gain strength, as a spokesman for the Libyan government says the regime has been unable to make contact with the man. Shokri Ghanem, Libya's top oil official, left Libya on Monday to go to Tunisia on "official business," said Moussa Ibrahim, spokesman for the Libyan government. Ibrahim told The Washington Post that Libya had not been able to reach Ghanem since Monday night. Ghanem's defection, if confirmed, would be the highest-profile departure from Gaddafi's embattled government since Musa Kusa, the foreign minister, sought safe haven in London at the end of March.

May 9-10, 2011

The U.N. refugee agency and the International Organization for Migration say Monday that a boat carrying hundreds of refugees sank off the coast of Tripoli last week, but details, including how many died, are unclear. As the government assault on rebel-held Misurata continues Tuesday, NATO steps up airstikes on "command-and-control" targets in Tripoli.

May 7, 2011

Libyan government forces bomb fuel depots in the rebel-held city of Misurata, causing a massive conflagration that threatens key sources of electricity and fuel for the besieged city, residents say. The city is the rebels' only major base of power in western Libya, and it has been a scene of fierce back-and-forth fighting for months. Residents say the fuel depots were hit shortly after midnight Saturday, and some say they had heard helicopters - a violation of the NATO-imposed no-fly zone blanketing the country, if true. The reports could not be independently confirmed.

May 3, 2011

There are "reasonable grounds" to charge Col. Moammar Gaddafi's security forces with having committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during their crackdown on Libyan protesters, according to the chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Court. The prosecutor, Argentine lawyer Luis Moreno-Ocampo, claims in a report to the U.N. Security Council that his investigators have established preliminary but "credible" estimates that at least 500 to 700 civilians have been shot to death by government forces.

May 2, 2011

Mourners vow revenge as Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's son Saif al-Arab is buried in the country's capital, with two of his brothers in attendance, after his death in a NATO airstrike that has raised questions about the alliance's mission in Libya. About 2,000 Gaddafi supporters gather for the funeral, chanting slogans in support of the regime. There is no sign of Gaddafi, who has appeared in public infrequently since NATO warplanes took over Libya's skies in mid-March.

April 28, 2011

An apparent NATO airstrike kills at least 10 rebel fighters in the northeast area of Misurata, officials say. Opposition leaders say it is still unclear whether NATO bombs or rockets and shelling from Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's forces killed the men as they drove on a swampy road that leads directly to the port of the coastal city. But a doctor in Misurata tells the Associated Press that the explosions did come from coalition aircraft.

April 27, 2011

Police and soldiers are deployed to keep the peace at gas stations throughout government-held western Libya, as lines stretch hundreds of yards and waiting times to fill a tank often last days. Crowds of men mill around at almost every gas station and fist fights are common, according to residents of Tripoli, the capital. The lines represent the most obvious sign that international sanctions against Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's government are beginning to bite.

April 26, 2011

The commander of NATO operations in Libya says that alliance bombers attacked a large government compound in Tripoli the day before to destroy command and control nodes, not to assassinate Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi. The assertion, by Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, the Canadian national who commands NATO's Operation Unified Protector, was designed to refute accusations by Libyan officials that the aim of a strike early Monday was to assassinate Gaddafi in violation of international law.

April 25, 2011

Libya's government accuses NATO of trying to assassinate Moammar Gaddafi after the coalition sends at least two large guided bombs into the sprawling office, residential and military complex where he lives in the heart of Tripoli, destroying offices and a library used by the Libyan leader.

April 22, 2011

Libyan rebels claim Friday that they have regained nearly full control of the center of Misurata, partly thanks to weeks of NATO airstrikes, and say they hope deployment of U.S. armed Predator drones can help them drive Moammar Gaddafi's forces out completely.

April 20, 2011

The United States and its allies enter a new stage of involvement in Libya, sending assistance and advisers directly to opposition military forces, which have been unable to break Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's stranglehold over much of the country despite help from NATO airstrikes. France and Italy say they will join Britain in dispatching military advisers to assist the inexperienced and disorganized rebel army, primarily in tactics and logistics. President Obama authorizes sending $25 million worth of nonlethal equipment, including body armor, tents, uniforms and vehicles.

April 18, 2011

The Libyan government promises to allow the United Nations to open a humanitarian corridor to the besieged western city of Misurata to provide aid, food and medicine to civilians and safe passage for people to leave, after weeks of attacks that have left an estimated 1,000 people dead.

April 12-14, 2011

Officials from France and Britain complain that other NATO allies, including the United States, need to increase air strikes and commit more resources to protecting civlians in places like Misurata, where hundreds of people have been killed and a humanitarian crisis is escalating. U.S. officials play down the rift at a NATO summit on Thursday.

April 9-11, 2011

Gaddafi accepts a "political road map" and ceasefire agreement proposed by an African Union delegation on Sunday, but the opposition council in Benghazi rejects the plan on Monday, saying that they will not agree to anything that does not include Gaddafi's ouster. Fighting is centered around the strategic city of Ajdabiya, with rebel fighters becoming increasingly dependent on NATO airstrikes.

April 5-8, 2011

A NATO commander acknowledges that allied warplanes may have mistakenly bombed rebels outside Brega Thursday, killing at least five people. Western diplomats say on Wednesday that Gaddafi's forces are using human shields to prevent NATO planes from striking.

April 3, 2011

Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi launches a diplomatic initiative toward some members of NATO, with the Greek government saying that a senior Libyan official met with Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and plans to travel to Turkey next. The Gaddafi regime is "searching for a solution," Greek Foreign Minister Dimitris Droutsas says, but he provides no details of the meeting with acting Libyan Foreign Minister Abdulati al-Obeidi. Droutsas adds that his government would inform "all our partners and allies" about the Libyan proposals.

March 30, 2011

The Obama administration announces it has sent teams of CIA operatives into Libya in a rush to gather intelligence on the identity, goals and progress of rebel forces opposed to Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi, according to U.S. officials. In Libya, in the face of a new onslaught by government troops, rebel forces flee eastward from cities and towns they had captured just days ago. But Gaddafi suffers a political defeat with the defection to Britain of his foreign minister, Musa Kusa, the most senior official thus far to break ranks.

March 28, 2011

Libyan rebels fight their way toward Moammar Gaddafi's hometown on the Mediterranean coast as his government sends in reinforcements, setting up a potentially crucial battle in the six-week-old uprising against him. Aided by airstrikes launched by a Western-led coalition, rebels push westward to the town of Nawfaliyah and vow to move in the coming days on Sirte, Reuters news agency reports.

March 25, 2011

A top French military official predicts that the international military campaign against Libya will last several weeks and says a political solution is needed to end the conflict between rebels and those loyal to Moammar Gaddafi. Seven days into a Western-led air operation to enforce a no-fly zone and arms embargo for Libya, the United States has reached an agreement to hand over control of the effort to NATO, and the United Arab Emirates says it will deploy 12 aircraft to join the effort.

March 23, 2011

International military forces step up attacks on government troops in Misurata, 131 miles east of Tripoli. The airstrikes seem to bring a temporary respite from the fighting that had raged for six days between forces loyal to Moammar Gaddafi and rebels, as government tanks retreated from the city center. But after nightfall, the tanks return and resume their attacks, according to a doctor at the city's main hospital. "They are shelling everywhere," he says by telephone.

March 22, 2011

After four days of leading strikes against Gaddafi's forces to protect Libyan civilians, the U.S. said on Tuesday that it would hand control of the operation over to its allies within days.

March 19-21, 2011

The United States, Britain, France and other coalition countries launch strikes by sea and air against Gaddafi's air defense systems, airfields and ground forces in a U.N.-supported mission to protect Libyan civilians.

March 18, 2011

Despite the declaration of a ceasefire in response to the U.N. Security Council's resolution, Gaddafi's forces continue pummeling areas of eastern Libya with artillery and airstrikes well after the cease-fire was supposed to take effect. The attacks target the areas around Zuwaytinah and Ajdabiya, more than 90 miles south of Benghazi. Jets streak across the sky firing at targets, at least one helicopter flies low across the desert, and artillery bombardment can be heard for several hours Friday afternoon around Zuwaytinah.

March 16, 2011

Libyan rebels battle to hold a strategic eastern city against a punishing offensive by forces loyal to Moammar Gaddafi, voicing anger and frustration at the West for not coming to their aid. At the same time, government troops heavily shell the last main rebel bastion near the capital.

March 15, 2011

Forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi launch a major assault on the strategic eastern city Ajdabiya, deploying artillery, tanks and rockets to pummel rebel positions in an effort to push their way toward the rebel stronghold of Benghazi.

March 12, 2011

The Arab League called on the U.N. Security Council on Saturday to immediately impose a no-fly zone over Libya and announced that it was recognizing the rebel movement as that country's legitimate government. The move could significantly raise pressure on the United States and European nations to act in response to the conflict that has erupted in recent weeks as rebels have seized half of Libya and Col. Moammar Gaddafi's security forces have struck back with massive firepower.

March 11, 2011

European governments declare that Moammar Gaddafi can no longer be considered the leader of Libya and must step down immediately, but they stop short of formally recognizing the Libyan rebel movement or endorsing military action to support its armed struggle.

President Obama expresses concern about a U.S. intelligence assessment that Moammar Gaddafi may have the firepower to win a war of attrition against Libyan rebels, but he insists that "we are slowly tightening the noose" on the longtime leader.

March 10, 2011

Pro-government forces intensify their siege around the rebel-held town of Misurata, one resident says, cutting off the delivery of food and supplies, preventing farmers from going to their fields, and abducting people on the city's outskirts. War is also being waged on at least two other fronts, with rebel forces claiming on March 9 to have broken through a three-day standoff with government fighters in the town of Bin Jawwad but acknowledging another day of heavy casualties in Zawiyah.

March 9, 2011

Residents of Zawiyah, the city closest to Libya's capital, say the city remains under siege by pro-Gaddafi forces. "They are killing everybody who walks the street," one man says. Internet service and electricity have been cut. A U.N. special investigator says he has started a probe into allegations of torture used by Libyan ruler Moammar Gaddafi's forces, according to AP.

March 7, 2011

Fierce fighting between government and rebel forces continues as loyalists to Moammar Gaddafi renew assaults on several fronts to try and reclaim ground lost since the uprising began. The Libyan opposition says an offer--purportedly from Gaddafi--has been conveyed to council elders in the provisional capital of Benghazi.

According to an opposition spokesman, the Libyan leader would agree to step down if granted immunity from prosecution and safe passage out of the country. But opposition officials say they are still trying to establish the veracity of the offer, which came from Jadallah Azous al-Talhi, a former minister in Gaddafi's government.

March 6, 2011

Forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi escalate a lethal counterattack heightening assaults on rebels in two key western cities near his stronghold of Tripoli while launching airstrikes and engaging opposition bands marching from the east toward his hometown of Sirte in heavy ground clashes along the Mediterranean coast.

March 3, 2011

Forces loyal to Gaddafi launch renewed airstrikes against two key rebel-held towns, a day after poorly armed citizens repelled a major government assault on the area. At least three powerful air strikes hit Brega, the oil installation town. There is also a strike near an army munitions storage unit just outside of Ajdabiya, about 40 miles away. But there is no ground fighting.

March 2, 2011

Forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi move to recapture control of a key oil port in eastern Libya. It looks as if loyalist forces could reverse the tide of the opposition uprising. Gaddafi also gives a televised public rally in the capital, Tripoli, denying the existence of protests in Libya and saying the power was in the "hands of the people".

March 1, 2011

Libyan soldiers and paramilitaries loyal to Moammar Gaddafi attempt to retake territory that has been seized by rebels, but neither side appears to gain ground, according to accounts of the fighting from residents and officials with the opposition movement. In a six-hour battle, rebels armed with tanks, anti aircraft guns and automatic weapons repel an overnight attack by government troops using the same weapons in the town of Zawiya, 30 miles west of Tripoli, the Associated Press reports.

Feb. 27, 2011

Revolt spreads deeper into the west, with rock-wielding residents expanding control over key towns even as loyalist forces appear poised to counterattack or impose blockades. Gaddafi seeks to reinforce his position in Tripoli, the capital and his stronghold, by literally doling out cash to citizens and vowing huge raises for public workers, residents there say.

Feb. 25, 2011

Gunfire erupts in at least three neighborhoods of Tripoli Friday, as opponents of Moammar Gaddafi try to revive their protests against his regime in spite of a massive security clampdown. Hours earlier, Libyan state television announces that the government will distribute $400 to each family in a bid to head off fresh demonstrations called for by regime opponents after midday prayers.

Feb. 24, 2011

Moammar Gaddafi's son denies that Libya has killed large numbers of protesters through airstrikes and other attacks, while a former top Gaddafi aide says he quit the government to protest its violent crackdown. Libya appears dangerously fractured, with Gaddafi's regime intent on fighting but its authority beyond Tripoli in doubt. The longtime ruler is tightening his grip on the capital, witnesses say, by flooding the streets with militiamen and loyalist troops

Feb. 22, 2011

Libyan strongman Moammar Gaddafi appears on state television to prove he has not fled the country, as the opposition seems to seize control in some areas and soldiers and government officials resign in outrage over attacks on civilians. Later in the day, he makes another public address, defiantly rejecting opposition demands that he give up power, vowing that he would never leave the North African nation he has ruled for more than four decades and would die a "martyr."

The vicious crackdown against demonstrators appears to be fast eroding whatever support remains for Gaddafi, 68, who assumed power in a 1969 military coup.

Feb. 21, 2011

Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi's regime shows more signs of crumbling Monday following a volatile night in which dozens are reportedly killed in the capital and Gaddafi's son and heir-apparent declares in a televised speech that the North African nation could fall into anarchy if his father was ousted. There are also reports of senior Libyan officials resigning from their posts, outraged by the killings carried out by security forces.

Feb. 20, 2011

Continuing clashes between protesters and security forces lead to at least 200 deaths. In a travel warning, the State Department urges its citizens to avoid non-essential travel to Libya.

McClatchy reports that Amnesty International urges Moammar Gaddafi to "immediately rein in his security forces amid reports of machine guns and other weapons being used against protesters."

Feb. 19, 2011

Moammar Gaddafi's forces fire on mourners leaving a funeral for protesters in the eastern city of Benghazi, killing at least 15 people and wounding scores more as the regime tries to squelch calls for an end to the ruler's 42-year grip on power. Libyan protesters are back on the street for the fifth straight day, as Gaddafi takes a hard line toward the dissent.

Feb. 17, 2011

Libyan protesters defy a crackdown and protest in four cities Thursday during a "day of rage." At least 20 demonstrators are killed in clashes with pro-government groups, according to reports. New York-based Human Rights Watch says Libyan internal security forces also have arrested at least 14 people. Hundreds of pro-government demonstrators rally in the capital, Tripoli, blocking traffic in some areas, witnesses say.

Feb. 16, 2011

Roughly 200 protesters take to the streets in Benghazi to show support for human rights activist and lawyer Fathi Terbil, according to CNN. Several are arrested amid confrontations with police. A highly placed source close to the Libyan government tells CNN, "there is nothing serious here. These are just young people fighting each other."

June 26, 2011

Tens of thousands of people demonstrate around Morocco both for and against a proposed new constitution, just a week before it is to be voted on in a referendum. In Morocco's largest city, Casablanca, government supporters block and attack with rocks a march by thousands of activists, wounding many.

June 12, 2011

Thousands march through Morocco's largest city calling for greater democracy and an end to corruption even as the king prepares to unveil new constitutional amendments to address calls for reform. There is only a light police presence blocking off traffic as about 6,000 protesters flow through the wide streets of downtown Casablanca chanting slogans against the government.

March 9, 2011

King Mohammed VI says that Morocco will revise its constitution for the first time in 15 years, aiming to strengthen democracy in the face of a push across the Arab world. In a rare TV and radio speech to the nation, the popular monarch says a new commission will suggest constitutional revisions to him by June, and the overall project will be put to Moroccan voters in a referendum.

Feb. 20, 2011

Thousands of people march in cities across Morocco demanding a new constitution to bring more democracy in the North African kingdom amid the wave of Arab world upheaval. Demonstrators shout slogans calling for economic opportunity, educational reform, better health services and help coping with rising living costs during a march on central Hassan II Avenue in the capital, Rabat.

Scattered violence breakks out in some places. Stone-throwing youths clash with police near the ocre-colored walls of touristic hub of Marrakech, where angry mobs overturn and torch several parked cars.

Protests called for Feb. 20

Bloggers calling themselves "Moroccan movement of 20 February" call for protests on Feb. 20 to challenge a monarchy they say has monpolized power.

June 28, 2011

Fifteen protesters are sentenced to jail terms for taking part in violent demonstrations calling for more jobs and other reforms from Oman's rulers. The one month to one year sentences are linked to unrest that included looting and damaging government buildings after protests broke out in February. Security forces have tightened their hold in Oman since storming protester encampments last month.

March 1, 2011

Oman deploys troops north of the capital Muscat and near the border with the United Arab Emirates, following three straight days of anti-government protests, a government official says.

Feb. 27, 2011

Police kill an anti-government protester in Sohar, after demonstrations turned violent. Several government buildings and a supermarket aree set on fire, local media reports. Oman, ruled by a powerful family dynasty, is the latest Arab nation to be swept up in a wave of regional unrest that has already brought down two leaders and threatened the rule of others.

More Oman coverage

March 11, 2011

Hundreds march in Al-Ahsa, an oasis town in the country's largely Shiite Eastern Province, and several protesters are arrested, but there is no violence, says Ibrahim al-Mugaiteeb, president of the country's Human Rights First Society. Another witness says that marches are held in three small towns outside Qatif and that late in the evening hundreds of people march in Qatif itself. All the protests take place without incident.

March 10, 2011

Three people are injured when police open fire during a protest in eastern Saudi Arabia, according to a witness and a Saudi official. The witness, who spoke on the condition of anonymity for fear of reprisals by authorities, says police at first fired over protesters' heads but then began shooting directly at them during a march in central Qatif, a predominantly Shiite town in oil-rich Eastern Province.

More Saudi Arabia coverage

Nov. 14, 2011

Jordan's King Abdullah suggested Bashar al-Assad step down, in the most explicit condemnation yet of Assad by an Arab leader.

Nov. 12, 2011

The Arab League approved on Saturday a sweeping package of measures censuring Syria, clearing the way for a significant escalation of international pressure against President Bashar al-Assad.

Aug. 23, 2011

Syria's fragmented opposition took steps toward forming a national council, but serious divisions and mistrust among the members prevented them from presenting a unified front against President Bashar Assad’s regime more than five months into the country’s uprising, participants said.

Aug. 18, 2011

President Obama on Thursday for the first time told Syrian President Bashar al-Assad he must step down. While the move was largely symbolic, designed to increase pressure on the Syrian government, Obama also issued an executive order to freeze all assets of the Syrian government subject to U.S. jurisdiction and prohibited Americans from engaging in any transaction involving the government.

Aug. 14, 2011

Syrian troops backed by gunboats and tanks expanded their offensive against democracy activists to the coastal town of Latakia on Sunday, in continued defiance of growing international pressure on the Syrian government to halt the violence and implement reforms.

Aug. 7, 2011

The Arab League, which had remained silent on the violence in Syria, joined the chorus of international condemnation for the first time Sunday, expressing "growing concern and serious distress" at the harsh tactics being used.

Aug. 5, 2011

Widespread protests erupted across Syria on Friday, suggesting that a deadly military crackdown focused on the central city of Hama this week has served only to fuel anger with the government, not to deter people from taking to the streets.

Aug. 4, 2011

Syrian security forces are summarily executing people on the streets of Hama, a human rights group said Thursday, raising fears that bloodshed could escalate dramatically in the besieged city even as world condemnation of the violence continues to mount.

Aug. 1, 2011

Syrian forces launched a renewed assault on the flash point city of Hama on Monday, extending their effort to crush a four-month-old rebellion into the first day of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan despite growing world condemnation.

July 30, 2011

Syrian troops opened fire on people throwing stones to stop a military convoy from advancing toward the eastern city of Deir el-Zour, killing as many as three people Saturday, activists said, as government forces intensified a pre-Ramadan crackdown on protesters calling for President Bashar al-Assad's ouster.

July 29, 2011

Hundreds of thousands of Syrians took to the streets again in what has become a weekly ritual of Friday protests. Fifteen people were killed nationwide by security forces, according to the Local Coordination Committees, a group that organizes and monitors protests. The death toll was lower than on most previous Fridays, perhaps a sign that the security forces have realized the riskiness of killing people on the eve of Ramadan.

July 11, 2011

Supporters of the Syrian government pelt the U.S. embassy with rocks, smash windows and raise their national flag in place of the American one, a day after the U.S. ambassador delivered an extraordinary rebuke to the Syrian government on Facebook. A U.S. embassy official says about 10 of the protesters broke into the embassy compound, destroying the main entrance.

July 8, 2011

The U.S. ambassador to Syria has positioned himself in the restive city of Hama ahead of planned demonstrations this weekend, State Department officials say, in an unusual move that appears aimed at discouraging new violence against protesters. Ambassador Robert Ford acts without official Syrian blessing in traveling to the city of 700,000 that has been at the center of the country's four-month-old uprising, U.S. officials say.

July 6, 2011

Syrian security forces may have committed crimes against humanity during a deadly siege in May, Amnesty International says, citing witness accounts of deaths in custody, torture and arbitrary detention. The London-based rights group calls on the U.N. Security Council to refer the situation in Syria to the International Criminal Court.

July 5, 2011

Syrian security forces and gunmen loyal to the regime shoot dead 11 people as residents erected roadblocks to prevent the advance of tanks ringing the city of Hama, which has become a flashpoint of the uprising against autocratic President Bashar Assad, activists say.

July 1, 2011

Around 100 peaceful protesters calling for freedom were met with police and baton-wielding security forces at Damascus University. Students gathered outside the faculty of economics in the Baramkeh area of Damascus minutes after 3pm calling for freedom. Dozens more students joined together with the small group as the chanting became more forceful. One female protester managed to unfurl a flag before police and security forces charged on the crowd.

June 30, 2011

Syrian army forces spread through a restive mountainous area near the Turkish border as the death toll from a two-day military siege rises to 19 people, activists and a witness says. The action by Syrian troops in the northwestern area of Jabal al-Zawiya appears to be aimed at preventing residents from fleeing to Turkey, where more than 10,000 Syrians have already taken shelter in refugee camps, activists say.

June 28, 2011

A Russian envoy tells Syrian opposition members that "leaders come and go" - an apparent signal to Syrian President Bashar Assad that he cannot count on his ally's unconditional support after months of protests demanding his ouster. It remains to be seen if Mikhail Margelov's comments indicate a change in Moscow's opposition to tough U.N. action on Syria for Assad's bloody crackdown on his opponents.

June 27, 2011

Critics of Syria's authoritarian regime, at a rare gathering in Damascus, call for a peaceful transition to democracy and an end to the Assad family's 40-year-old monopoly on power. Otherwise, they say, Syria's current chaos might destroy the country.

June 23, 2011

Syrian troops push to the Turkish border in their sweep against a 3-month-old pro-democracy movement, sending panicked refugees, including children, rushing across the frontier to safe havens in Turkey. The European Union announces it is slapping new sanctions on the Syrian regime because of the "gravity of the situation," in which the Syrian opposition says 1,400 people have been killed in a relentless government crackdown.

June 22, 2011

The Syrian regime lashes out at European governments for threatening a new round of sanctions and accuses the West of trying to sow chaos and conflict in the Arab nation. But Foreign Minister Walid Moallem also reiterates the president's call for national dialogue and speaks of democracy over the horizon - a bold assertion after more than four decades of iron-fisted rule by the Assad family and months of bloody reprisals.

June 21, 2011

Syrian President Bashar Assad's efforts to drown out pro-democracy protests explode into clashes between government supporters and opponents. Security forces open fire and kill seven people, including a teenager, activists say. The violence flares a day after a speech in which Assad offered a vague promise of reform.

June 20, 2011

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad blames the mass protests rocking his country on "saboteurs" and "vandalism," declaring in a televised speech that "there can be no development without stability." Assad, wrestling with the boldest challenge ever to his family's 40-year rule, speaks at Damascus University, sounding mostly defiant despite some conciliatory notes.

June 17, 2011

Syrian troops backed by tanks and helicopter gunships seize control of another northwestern town, activists report. Tens of thousands of Syrians pour onto the streets of cities around the country to press their demand for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Rami Makhlouf, Assad's cousin and childhood friend, is relinquishing control over his business interests.

June 16, 2011

Syrian security forces make sweeping arrests, randomly detaining males above the age of 16 in a northwestern province that has been under military siege for a week, a Syrian human rights activist says. Mustafa Osso says the arrests are mainly concentrated in the Jisr al-Shughour area, the town of Maaret al-Numan and nearby villages, where the army has been massing troops for days in what appears to be a preparation for a fresh military operation.

June 15, 2011

Syrian army units are poised to sweep into another northern town to crush anti-government protests, sending residents running for their lives as Bashar Assad's regime sought to control the spectacle of thousands of terrified refugees streaming across the border into Turkey. Maj. Gen. Riad Haddad, head of the military's political department, says tanks surrounding the northern town of Maaret al-Numan have not entered "yet" - suggesting they were readying an operation there. Activists say hundreds of residents are fleeing the town.

June 14, 2011

The Syrian military widenes its crackdown on anti-government protesters, dispatching tanks to at least two more locations, including a town near the border with Iraq, as the government seeks to extinguish an expanding rebellion that appears to threaten the army's cohesion. Tanks moved into position on the outskirts of the eastern border town of Deir al-Zour, site of some of the biggest protests of the three-month-old uprising. Activists said tanks were also converging on the town of Maarat al-Nouman, where protesters reportedly burned government buildings over the weekend.

June 10, 2011

Syrian troops launch "military operations" against a rebellious northwestern town as thousands of Syrians take to the streets around the country to call for the overthrow of President Bashar al-Assad. Activists say the attack appeared to be focused on villages surrounding the town of Jisr al-Shughour, which became the latest target of the Syrian government's brutal effort to suppress a 12-week-old uprising after Syrian state media reported the deaths of 120 soldiers there earlier in the week.

June 8, 2011

Syria's tourism industry suffers as the absence of foreign visitors in Damascus is the most visible sign of huge economic damage from nearly three months of unrest. The wave of protests and brutal government response, which human rights activists say has killed more than 850 people, is all but invisible in the center of Damascus.

June 6, 2011

The Syrian government says that 120 people have been killed by armed protesters in the northern town of Jisr al-Shughour, amid indications that at least in some parts of the country what began as a peaceful protest movement is turning into an armed rebellion. A whole swath of villages around Jisr al-Shughour, a region that has a long history of loyalty to the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood, are now outside government control, said one human rights activist, suggesting the Syrian uprising is entering a dangerous new phase.

June 3, 2011

Syrian troops open fire during an anti-government demonstration that appears to be one of the biggest yet, reportedly killing dozens of protesters and wounding many more in the central town of Hama as Syrians around the country pour onto the streets in a renewed effort to force the ouster of President Bashar al-Assad.

May 31, 2011

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad on Tuesday issues a general amnesty for prisoners that includes those deemed to have committed political crimes, as pressure built from a 10-week-old uprising that his government has failed to quell with overwhelming military force. The opposition swiftly rejectes the offer as another ploy by the government to gain time.

May 29, 2011

The apparent torture of a 13-year-old Syrian boy reinvigorates Syria's protest movement. When found, the boy's head is swollen, purple and disfigured. His body is a mess of welts, cigarette burns and wounds from bullets fired to injure, not kill. His kneecaps have been smashed, his neck broken, his jaw shattered and his penis cut off. What finally killed him is not clear, but it appeared painfully, shockingly clear that he had suffered terribly during the month he spent in Syrian custody. Since a video portraying the torture inflicted upon him was broadcast on the al-Jazeera television network Friday, he has rapidly emerged as the new symbol of the protest movement in Syria.

May 27, 2011

Thousands of protesters pour into the streets in towns and cities across Syria after Friday prayers to demand the end of President Bashar al-Assad's regime. Activists dedicate this 10th consecutive Friday of protests to the army, dubbing the day "Guardians of the Homeland Friday" in an effort to woo the military to the demonstrators' side. Protesters were told to take flowers and offer them to soldiers who sought to suppress the demonstrations.

May 24, 2011

The death toll from Syria's crackdown on a nine-week uprising has exceeded 1,000, a prominent human rights group said Tuesday, as the country's opposition called for fresh protests and clearer goals.

May 18, 2011

The Obama administration imposes sanctions on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and six of his government's top officials as the White House seeks to increase pressure on Assad to halt violence against anti-government protesters. President Obama approves the financial penalties as part of an executive order accusing Assad of human rights abuses during a brutal, two-month crackdown that has left hundreds of civilians dead and thousands behind bars.

May 13, 2011

A top government adviser says Friday that Syria plans to respond to what she calls the legitimate demands of peaceful protesters, after Syrians again defy troops and tanks to demonstrate around the country, suggesting that the regime is starting to realize that its strategy of using overwhelming force to quell the stubborn opposition movement is failing. Tens of thousands of Syrians pour into the streets after Friday prayers in dozens of towns and villages in defiance of the crackdown.

May 9, 2011

Syrian troops detain hundreds more people in towns across the country as they pursue their relentless crackdown against the stubbornly persistent protest movement that has swelled in recent weeks to challenge the government. Troops backed by tanks seal off the Damascus suburb of Moadhamiya in the small hours of the morning, and residents hear gunfire as soldiers conducted house-to-house raids looking for people who have joined in recent anti-government demonstrations.

April 29, 2011

The Obama administration slaps sanctions on three Syrian officials and Syria's intelligence service in what is described as a warning shot against President Bashar al-Assad's government after weeks of steadily worsening violence against protesters. The measures targeting key members of Assad's security apparatus come amid reports of dozens more deaths across the country as Syrians rally in several cities including, for the first time, in large numbers in Damascus, the capital - for a national "Day of Rage" denouncing government brutality.

April 28, 2011

Syrian army units clash with each other following President Bashar Assad's orders to crack down on protesters in Daraa, a besieged city at the heart of the uprising, witnesses and human rights groups say. More than 450 people have been killed across Syria - about 100 in Daraa alone - and hundreds detained since the popular revolt against Assad began in mid-March, according to human rights groups.

April 27, 2011

Syria ignores mounting international pressure to halt its bloody crackdown against anti-government protesters, dispatching army reinforcements to the besieged southern town of Daraa and the Damascus suburb of Douma, while continuing to round up activists in other towns where demonstrations have occurred. Germany joins France, Britain and Italy in threatening sanctions unless President Bashar al-Assad's forces stop gunning down protesters, and the U.N. Human Rights Council, based in Geneva, agrees to a U.S. request for a special session on Syria on Friday.

April 25, 2011

Thousands of soldiers backed by tanks and snipers move in before dawn to Daraa, where Syria's anti-government uprising began, causing panic in the streets when they open fire indiscriminately on civilians and go house-to-house rounding up suspected protesters. At least 11 people are killed and 14 others lay in the streets - either dead or gravely wounded, witnesses say.

April 24, 2011

Syrian security forces detain dozens of opposition activists and fire from rooftops in a seaside town as authorities turn to pinpoint raids after days of bloodshed bring international condemnation and defections from President Bashar al-Assad's regime. The strategy, described by a rights activist, appears to be aimed at rattling the opposition's leadership and showing that despite last week's lifting of emergency laws in place nearly 50 years, the state's ability to conduct arrest sweeps has not changed.

April 22, 2011

Syrian security forces open fire on anti-government protesters in several towns, killing dozens of people after crowds take to the streets to call for an end to the rule of President Bashar al-Assad, activists say. As reports of the violence trickle out of cities and towns throughout the day, a picture begins to emerge of a broad crackdown on the protest movement despite ostensible government concessions earlier in the week.

April 19, 2011

The Syrian government ratchets up its efforts to quell weeks of demonstrations, firing live ammunition into a crowd of protesters in one city even as it lifts decades-old emergency laws in an attempt to appease its critics. The actions come in the wake of the boldest, and most organized, anti-government rally in the month-long uprising, with protesters occupying a square in Syria's third-largest city as they demand an end to the Assad family's 40-year rule.

April 17, 2011

Protests in Syria turn violent when security forces shoot at demonstrators in two towns, killing at least 13 people and detaining many more, activists say. The shootings come at the end of a day in which thousands of people take to the streets in towns and cities across Syria, calling for an end to President Bashar al-Assad's regime, a day after he vowed to lift emergency laws that have been in place for almost 50 years.

April 12, 2011

Two northern Syrian villages near the Mediterranean port of Baniyas come under fierce attack by government forces, according to witnesses and activists, as President Bashar al-Assad's government intensifies efforts to suppress an apparently strengthening protest movement.

April 11, 2011

Syria's military moves into the Mediterranean port of Baniyas, human rights workers and activists say, a day after at least 13 people - four demonstrators and nine members of the state's security forces - are killed in violent clashes there. Other activists say the unrest in Syria had reached Damascus University, Syria's oldest and most prestigious institution of higher learning, in the nation's capital. The Associated Press says there were reports that one student was killed, but the news service could not independently confirm the death.

April 8, 2011

Mass protests calling for sweeping changes in Syria's authoritarian regime turn deadly, with the government and protesters both claiming heavy casualties as the country's three-week uprising enters a dangerous new phase. The bloodiest clashes occurr in the restive city of Daraa, where human rights activists and witnesses say Syrian security forces opened fire on tens of thousands of protesters, killing 25 people and wounding hundreds.

April 3, 2011

The State Department issues a warning Sunday for U.S. citizens traveling in Syria, citing political and civil unrest. Citizens are urged to defer nonessential travel, and eligible family members of U.S. government workers are authorized to leave the country.

March 29, 2011

Syrian state-run television says the Cabinet has resigned as the country sees the worst unrest in decades. President Bashar Assad accepted the Cabinet's resignation following a meeting. The resignation is the latest concession by the government aimed at appeasing more than a week of mass protests.

March 26, 2011

In an apparent effort to quell anger a day after a deadly crackdown on protesters, President Bashar al-Assad releases hundreds of political prisoners and pulls back security forces from the southwestern city where Syria's burgeoning unrest began last week.

March 18, 2011

Syrian security forces launch a harsh crackdown Friday on protesters calling for political freedoms, killing at least five people and marking the gravest unrest in years in one of the most repressive states in the Mideast, according to accounts from activists and social media.

March 15, 2011

Pro-democracy protests in Syria appear to have started in earnest, as a group of 200 mostly young protesters gather in the Syrian capital Damascus to demand reforms and the ouster of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in a 'Day of Rage', Deutsche Presse-Agentur reports.

Feb. 4-5, 2011

An online campaign organizes "days of rage" against Syrian President Bashar Assad Feb. 4 and 5, 2011, but no one shows up. The lack of demonstration is attributed to intimidation by security agents and strong support among Syrians of Assad's anti-Israel policies. It's also believed that many of the online organizers were Syrians living abroad. After the "days of rage," Syrians said Facebook and Youtube became available for the first time in three years. The country has had a longstanding ban on social networking sites.

July 5, 2011

A court convicts the former Tunisian president of smuggling drugs, guns and archaeological artifacts and sentences him to 15 1/2 years in prison in the latest trial in absentia of the deposed autocrat. The verdict follows a trial two weeks ago in which he and his wife each received sentences of 35 years in prison and $64 million in fines for embezzlement and other charges.

Tunisia's leading Islamist party announces it is pulling out of a commission that is preparing the country for its first elections. The pullout is the latest sign of tension between Tunisia's emerging political forces as they struggle to decide what the country will look like after decades of autocratic rule.

June 21, 2011

Tunisia's former ruler denies accusations he fled the country and says he was "tricked" into leaving. A statement released by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's Lebanese attorney says the ousted leader boarded a plane to Saudi Arabia after he was advised by his security chief of an assassination plot against him.

June 20, 2011

Tunisia's former autocratic ruler, whose ouster triggered a series of Arab world uprisings, goes on trial in absentia in the first of what will likely be a long series of court proceedings five months after he went into exile. The Tunis Criminal Court is hearing two embezzlement, money laundering and drug trafficking cases against Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

March 22, 2011

The State Department announces that it will give $20 million to Tunisia to help build its new democracy, boosting to more than $170 million the total in assistance for Arab countries that recently overthrew authoritarian leaders.

Feb. 27, 2011

Less than a minute after Tunisian Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannoushi resigns in a speech on national television, the crowd filling this city's Casbah Square suddenly halts the angry chants that had continued round-the-clock for days. There is silence, and then cheers, chants and circles of ecstatic dancing. For the second time in as many months, the people of Tunisia have toppled their government, and now their chant changed to "The act is done, the rest is yet to come!"

Jan. 14, 2011

Tunisian President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali loses his grip on power. The country's prime minister announces that he is taking over to organize early elections and usher in a new government. Ben Ali, 74, flees the North African country. After several hours of mystery over his whereabouts, the office of Saudi King Abdullah confirms early Saturday that Ben Ali and his family have landed in Saudi Arabia.

Jan. 4, 2011

With burns from his self-immolation covering 90 percent of his body, Bouazizi dies in a hospital. By this time, his act had spurred protests throughout the country, against stifling bureaucracy and corruption.

Dec. 17, 2010

College-educated Mohamed Bouazizi, 26, a fruit vendor in Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia, sets himself on fire in protest. He was angered by a municipal inspector who tried to confiscate his apples then slapped him in the face when he reached back for them. He was then beaten by two of the inspector's colleagues.

July 13, 2011

Saudi border guards arrest more than 19,000 infiltrators from troubled Yemen in June, nearly double the number caught the month before. The sharp increase comes as Yemen's security situation is rapidly unraveling. Yemen's president is being challenged by a five-month-old popular uprising that has emboldened al-Qaida-linked militants in Yemen's south.

July 10, 2011

During a face-to-face meeting in Saudi Arabia, a top Obama administration official tells Yemen's president to step aside and allow the political transition he had once approved but never ratified to move forward, according to a statement by the White House.

July 7, 2011

Yemen's embattled president lashes out at opponents seeking to drive him from power in his first public appearance since he was injured last month in a blast at his palace compound - an attack that left him appearing stiff and weakened. Sitting rigid in a chair, his hair covered with a cloth and his hands wrapped in white bandages, Ali Abdullah Saleh accused "terrorist elements" of carrying out the June 3 attack.

July 6, 2011

Yemeni security forces clash with Islamist fighters near the southern town of Zinjibar, controlled by militants, leaving seven Islamists and a soldier dead. In the west, two soldiers are killed in clashes with armed tribesmen near the southern city of Taiz, a hotbed of opposition protests. Security across the impoverished nation, home to an active al-Qaida branch, has largely collapsed since the uprising seeking to oust President Ali Abdullah Saleh broke out in February.

July 5, 2011

At least 40 militants linked to al-Qaida have been killed in two days of airstrikes and clashes with government forces, Yemen's state news agency says. The report by the SABA news agency says the government attacks began after militants tried to storm a military camp in the southern province of Abyan, where Islamist fighters have seized control of several towns.

June 28, 2011

Yemeni government warplanes and artillery pound several villages of anti-government tribes north of the capital, killing at least three people, a senior tribal leader says. Sheik Ali Youssef of the Naham tribe says that Republican Guard forces, which are commanded by embattled President Ali Abdullah Saleh's son, began bombarding the villages in the Naham mountain area, some 20 miles north of Sanaa, on Monday, continued throughout Tuesday.

June 26, 2011

Tens of thousands of protesters take to the streets across Yemen, demanding that a transitional presidential council be created to replace embattled President Ali Abdullah Saleh. The demonstrations come as a senior Yemeni official declares that Saleh will soon return from Saudi Arabia.

June 20, 2011

Tens of thousands of Yemenis take to the streets of the capital, demanding that the president's son leave the country. Ahmed Saleh, 42, is a one-time heir apparent who commands the elite Yemeni Presidential Guard. The force has led the crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators since the uprising began in February.

June 14, 2011

Hundreds of thousands of Yemenis demonstrate in nearly every major city of the country, demanding trial for the family and close aides of the ailing president. They are the largest protests since President Ali Abdullah Saleh went abroad for medical treatment for injuries suffered in an attack on his compound. Some of Saleh's family and closest aides remain behind, and Yemen remains locked in a power struggle between the president's allies and tribesmen demanding an end to the regime's nearly 33-year rule.

June 9, 2011

Nearly 100,000 Yemenis protest in a main square of the capital demanding that the wounded president be removed from power. The rally, held after weekly Muslim prayers, is the biggest since President Ali Abdullah Saleh was wounded in a blast that hit a mosque where he was praying in his presidential palace on June 3. Heavily burned, Saleh was rushed to Saudi Arabia for treatment along with a number of top officials from his regime who also were wounded in the blast.

June 8, 2011

Youth and human rights activist leaders say that they intended to launch their own transitional presidential council if the government refuses to abandon President Ali Abdullah Saleh and pave the way for a transition of power. The ultimatum underscores the sense of urgency and frustrations among the activists who fear, even with Saleh outside Yemen, they could lose the gains they have achieved so far and the regime could continue in Saleh's absence.

June 7, 2011

Attacks by militants and the Yemeni army in two restive provinces leave dozens dead, while embattled President Ali Abdullah Saleh is reported to be more seriously injured in last week's palace attack than originally stated. A U.S. government official said Saleh, who left Yemen on Sunday to seek medical care in Saudi Arabia, "sustained significant burn injuries and shrapnel wounds." "His condition is serious, and it's likely that it will take him a while to recover fully," the official said. Saleh has burns covering about 40 percent of his body and suffered extensive shrapnel injuries from wood splintered by the rocket attack on his palace, the official said.

June 5, 2011

Yemenis set off fireworks and dance in the streets on Sunday to celebrate the possible end of President Ali Abdullah Saleh's reign, as opposition politicians and diplomats scramble to hatch a plan to stop an ongoing, violent power struggle. The jubilation that gripped Sanaa, the capital, is tempered by fresh clashes in the southern city of Taiz, as well as myriad unanswered questions about how, and whether, a change of guard would play out. Residents in Sanaa report loud explosions and sustained gunfire Sunday night, but few details about the violence are available.

June 4, 2011

Hours after Yemen's president flies to Saudi Arabia for treatment of wounds sustained in a rocket attack, thousands of demonstrators flock to the streets of the capital Sunday to celebrate what they billed as the latest ouster of an Arab autocrat. "The Yemeni people have been born again," cried out Fatima Ahmad, 72, who was among those who walked to Change Square in Sanaa to celebrate the departure of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.

June 3, 2011

Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh is wounded in a rocket attack on his presidential palace, aides say, as fighting between government forces and opposition tribesmen pushes Yemen closer to civil war. Three guards are killed, and government officials and a Muslim prayer leader are wounded, when a rocket strikes near the palace's mosque during evening prayers.

June 1, 2011

Street battles between Yemeni government forces and armed tribesmen in Sanaa kill dozens of people in this country teetering on the brink of civil war, forcing residents to cower in basements or brave gunfire to fetch bread and water. At least 41 people are killed as clashes spread to new quarters of the city.

May 31, 2011

A Yemeni security official says radical Islamists who overran a southern town have killed five soldiers in an ambush. The official says two militants were killed in a resulting gunfight west of the town of Zinjibar, near Yemen's south coast.

May 29, 2011

Islamic militants seize control of Zinjibar in what is seen by opponents of President Ali Abdullah Saleh as an effort to ignite Western fears of Yemen's instability should he step down.

May 22, 2011

Gulf Arab states suspend an effort to give Yemen's embattled president a dignified exit after Ali Abdullah Saleh refuses at the last minute to sign a U.S.-backed deal that would have given him immunity. Saleh balks at signing the accord after a large mob of heavily armed supporters throng the embassy of the United Arab Emirates in Sanaa, trapping the U.S. ambassador and other envoys inside for hours.

May 17, 2011

Two Yemeni soldiers and a civilian are killed when armed men believed to belong to al Qaeda attack security posts in the eastern city of Mukalla. Yemen's active al Qaeda offshoot has taken advantage of three months of popular protests calling for the ouster of longtime president Ali Abdullah Saleh to step up operations in the country's weakly governed provinces.

May 15, 2011

Gunmen on a motorcycle open fire on two soldiers in a market in southern Yemen, killing one and wounding the other as protests against the longtime president escalate. Yemen's opposition, meanwhile, says it is not ready to accept a new attempt to revive a regional initiative to defuse the crisis if it means giving President Ali Abdullah Saleh more time in office.

May 8, 2011

Security forces backed by army units open fire Sunday on protesters demanding the ouster of Yemen's longtime president, killing three, an opposition activist says. In all, tens of thousands of protesters mobilized in several cities and towns, according to activists - the latest installment of daily protests against President Ali Abdullah Saleh that have been staged for almost three months.

April 27, 2011

A violent clash in Sanaa leaves at least 10 anti-government protesters dead and scores injured after a crowd tries unsuccessfully to take control of the state-run television station, according to protesters and volunteer doctors. The violence is a sign of growing unrest despite a tentative deal between the government and an opposition coalition that calls for President Ali Abdullah Saleh to step down within 30 days and grants Saleh and his family immunity from criminal prosecution.

April 23, 2011

President Ali Abdullah Saleh agrees to step down in exchange for immunity from criminal prosecution for himself and his family, the strongest indication yet that the embattled leader is willing to give up his 32-year grip on power if the opposition accepts his terms of exit. Under a proposal by neighboring Arab states, Saleh would resign from office 30 days after a formal agreement has been signed.

April 19, 2011

Yemeni security forces open fire on anti-government protesters, killing at least three amid rising international concern over the strategically located nation. The United Nations Security Council meets for a first-ever briefing and discussion about the deteriorating situation in Yemen, where rights groups say two months of protests calling for the president to step down have claimed 120 lives. But the U.N.'s most powerful body couldn't agree on a statement proposed by Lebanon and Germany expressing concern at the political crisis, calling on the parties "to exercise restraint and to enter into a comprehensive dialogue to realize the legitimate aspirations of the Yemeni people," and supporting the mediation role of the Gulf Cooperation Council.

April 16, 2011

Yemen's anti-government movement takes up the issue of women's rights in the conservative Muslim nation, as thousands of demonstrators seeking the president's ouster denounce his comments against the participation of women in protest rallies. In a speech the day before, President Ali Abdullah Saleh says the mingling of men and women at protests in the capital is against Islamic law. Demonstrators, including thousands of women, respond by marching through the capital of Sanaa and several other cities, shouting: "Saleh, beware of injuring women's honor."

April 13, 2011

Security forces clash with anti-government protesters and at least one rebel soldier is killed as fighting breaks out between rival military factions in Sanaa. Forces loyal to the pro-democracy movement march down the city's main road toward the airport, setting up checkpoints as they continue to seize territory, and government forces are ordered to stop the rebel advance.

April 11, 2011

Yemen's opposition rejects a Gulf Arab initiative for President Ali Abdullah Saleh to step down - because it appears to offer him immunity from prosecution - while Saleh welcomes the plan.

April 8, 2011

Yemen's president rejects a mediation offer by Gulf nations that called on him to resign, denouncing the proposal in a speech before tens of thousands of cheering supporters in the capital. Demonstrations around the country demand his ouster and turn bloody in a southern city where three people are shot dead.

April 7, 2011

The Yemeni opposition welcomes an offer by Arab Gulf states to mediate between President Ali Abdullah Saleh and protesters demanding that he step down after 32 years in power. Saleh's government, however, says the proposal by the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council is unconstitutional. The proposal calls on Saleh to hand over power to his deputy in return for immunity from prosecution for him and his family. More than 120 people have been killed in protests in Yemen since they began Feb. 11.

April 4, 2011

Yemeni security forces and pro-government loyalists opened fire on protesters marching in two Yemeni cities on Monday, killing at least 14 and wounding scores, according to witnesses. The violence was the deadliest attacks on demonstrators since March 18th, when snipers loyal to Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh shot dead at least 52 protesters in the capital Sanaa. That event triggered wide scale defections of Saleh's top allies from the military, tribes, and government.

March 28, 2011

An explosion rips through crowds of looters in a munitions factory, killing at least 78 and injuring scores in the latest sign of weakening government authority amid Yemen's two-month-old populist uprising. The accidental blast comes after soldiers abandon the factory, allowing the looters to enter - one of a series of incidents in recent days in which government forces have left their posts.

March 25, 2011

Outside Sanaa University, almost every inch of Justice Street fills with tents, as well as nearby Freedom Street. Doctors, teachers, students - anyone, it seems, who is against Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh - stay in tents, calling for his ouster day and night. Now there is a collective feeling in this crowded patch of the capital that Saleh's rule has entered its last days. Reports that Saleh was discussing the terms of his departure with a top military officer who recently joined the opposition only heighten that mood.

March 23, 2011

Yemen's parliament enacts sweeping emergency laws after the country's embattled president asks for new powers to quash a popular uprising demanding his ouster.

March 22, 2011

Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh in conflicting statements that did not stop calls for his immediate resignation.

March 18, 2011

Yemeni authorities declare a nationwide state of emergency Friday, hours after pro-government gunmen firing from rooftops unleashed a bloody attack on protesters in the capital. The death toll rises to 47 after the surprise assault, in which security forces and government supporters fire directly at protesters for more than 20 minutes, according to witnesses. In addition to the dead, hundreds of people are injured, dozens critically, medical workers say.

March 11, 2011

A day after Yemen's opposition rejects a presidential proposal for a new constitution, tens of thousands of anti-government demonstrators gather at Sanaa University in the capital Friday to demand President Ali Abdullah Saleh's immediate ouster and mourn the death of a protester who had been shot in the face by security forces earlier in the week.

March 10, 2011

President Ali Abdullah Saleh announces that a new constitution will be drafted, to transfer power from the president to a parliamentary system by the end of this year.

March 2, 2011

Detainees in one of Yemen's largest prisons riot for the ouster of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, chanting "the people want to overthrow the regime," Al Jazeera reports. A Yemeni security official says about 2,000 inmates stage the revolt, taking a dozen guards hostage. The riots prompt security forces to open fire with tear gas and live ammunition.

The official says the unrest in the Sanaa prison erupted lwhen prisoners set their mattresses ablaze and occupied the facility's courtyard. At least three prisoners in the Sanaa facility are reported killed and four others injured, inmate Sharif Mobley tells Al Jazeera by phone from within the prison.

March 2, 2011

Yemen's leader comes under new pressure as influential clerics, tribal leaders and some members of Yemen's opposition present a plan for a peaceful transition of power. President Ali Abdullah Saleh earlier pledged that he would not seek reelection in 2013. But some protesters demand that he step down immediately, and the opposition's proposal marks an attempt to find a middle ground.

March 1, 2011

Anti-government demonstrations grow larger and more boisterous. Tens of thousands call for an immediate end to President Ali Abdullah Saleh's authoritarian rule. Organizers call it the "Day of Rage," a name chosen to echo the protests in Egypt that led to President Mubarak's ouster. Since the protests in Yemen began Feb. 16, human rights activists say at least 27 people have been killed.

Yemen's embattled president accused the United States and Israel of trying to destabilize his country and the Arab world. Saleh's comments marked his harshest public criticism yet of the U.S. He said "there is an operations room in Tel Aviv with the aim of destabilizing the Arab world" and that it is "run by the White House."

Feb. 23, 2011

Thousands stream into a square in Yemen's capital, Sanaa, trying to bolster anti-government demonstrators after club-wielding backers of President Ali Abdullah Saleh tried to drive them out. Seven legislators resign from Saleh's ruling General People's Congress party because of the situation in the country and said they will form an independent bloc, according to a member of parliament, Abdul-Aziz Jabbari. The resignations raise to nine the number of legislators who have left the party since protests began.

Feb. 21, 2011

Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh rejects demands to resign immediately, declaring that protesters clamoring for an end to his rule must do so through elections rather than through violence and chaos.

But at the same time, he repeats his offer to hold a dialogue over power-sharing with Yemen's main opposition parties. The parties have rejected his proposal, saying they can't negotiate with a government whose loyalists and security forces have attacked pro-reform protesters with "bullets and sticks and thuggery."

Feb. 19, 2011

Yemeni riot police in the capital shoot dead an anti-government protester and injur five others when they open fire on thousands marching in the 10th day of unrest rocking the country. The country's leader blamed the unrest on "a foreign plot." Protesters seeking to oust longtime President Ali Abdullah Saleh, a key U.S. ally in fighting al-Qaida terrorists march from the University of Sanaa to the Ministry of Justice, chanting: "The people want the fall of the regime."

Feb. 18, 2011

Anti-government protesters clash with loyalists of President Ali Abdullah Saleh on the streets of Sanaa for the eighth straight day, hurling insults and chunks of concrete at one another.

For the first time since revolts erupted in Tunisia and Egypt, Yemeni soldiers, dressed in orange and brown uniforms, are posted at the scenes of the fighting. In the southern city of Aden, one protester dies and four are wounded when police fired gunshots to try to break up a crowd, the Reuters news service reported. It is the seventh death this week in Aden.

Feb. 17, 2011

In Sanaa, Yemen's anti-government activists suddenly, surprisingly retaliate with fury against heavily armed pro-government mobs, fighting with metal pipes, wooden sticks, and daggers, and deepening the pressure to find a way to calm Yemen's increasingly angry and volatile protesters.

Feb. 15, 2011

Small clashes between anti-government demonstrators and supporters of President Ali Abdullah Saleh break out in Yemen's capital, Sanaa, as demonstrations seeking Saleh's resignation unfolded for a fifth straight day. Saleh has offered significant concessions, including a pledge not to run for another term in office and not to anoint his son as his heir apparent. And Yemen's political opposition has agreed to sit down again with the government to discuss reconciliation and power sharing.

Feb. 14, 2011

Scores of riot police attempt to separate dueling factions in the fourth day of anti-government protests, but the pro-government crowds appeared determined to chase away foes who demanded the resignation of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who has ruled this impoverished nation for 32 years.

Feb. 11, 2011

Anti-government protests begin in Yemen, inspired by revolts in Egypt and Tunisia.

SOURCES: The Washington Post, news reports.

GRAPHIC: Sam Sanders, Wilson Andrews, Frank Yonkof / The Washington Post. Updated July 13, 2011.