Democracy Dies in Darkness

Outlook | Perspective

Kavanaugh is lying. His upbringing explains why.

The elite learn early that they’re special — and that they won’t face consequences.

September 28, 2018 at 6:00 AM

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Supreme Court nominee Brett M. Kavanaugh appeared before the Senate Judiciary Committee on Sept. 27, and adamantly denied Christine Blasey Ford's allegation of sexual assault. (Jenny Starrs /The Washington Post)

Brett Kavanaugh is not telling the whole truth. When President George W. Bush nominated him to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 2006, he told senators that he’d had nothing to do with the war on terror’s detention policies; that was not true. Kavanaugh also claimed under oath, that year and again this month, that he didn’t know that Democratic Party memos a GOP staffer showed him in 2003 were illegally obtained; his emails from that period reveal that these statements were probably false. And it cannot be possible that the Supreme Court nominee was both a well-behaved virgin who never lost control as a young man, as he told Fox News and the Senate Judiciary Committee this past week, and an often-drunk member of the “Keg City Club” and a “Renate Alumnius ,” as he seems to have bragged to many people and written into his high school yearbook. Then there are the sexual misconduct allegations against him, which he denies.

How could a man who appears to value honor and the integrity of the legal system explain this apparent mendacity? How could a man brought up in some of our nation’s most storied institutions — Georgetown Prep, Yale College, Yale Law School — dissemble with such ease? The answer lies in the privilege such institutions instill in their members, a privilege that suggests the rules that govern American society are for the common man, not the exceptional one.

Related: [Can truth survive this president? An honest investigation.]

The classical root of “privilege,” privus lex, means “private law.” The French aristocracy, for instance, was endowed with privileges, primarily exemption from taxation. Today’s equivalents are not aristocrats, yet they have both the sense and the experience that the rules don’t really apply to them and that they can act without much concern for the consequences. Elite schools like Georgetown Prep and Yale have long cultivated this sensibility in conscious and unconscious ways.

What makes these schools elite is that so few can attend. In the mythologies they construct, only those who are truly exceptional are admitted — precisely because they are not like everyone else. Yale President Peter Salovey, for instance, has welcomed freshmen by telling them that they are “the very best students.” To attend these schools is to be told constantly: You’re special, you’re a member of the elect, you have been chosen because of your outstanding qualities and accomplishments.

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We should apply a higher standard to Supreme Court nominees than "innocent until proven guilty." Nobody deserves to be on the bench, says editorial board member Stephen Stromberg. (Adriana Usero, Kate Woodsome/The Washington Post)

Schools often quite openly affirm the idea that, because you are better, you are not governed by the same dynamics as everyone else. They celebrate their astonishingly low acceptance rates and broadcast lists of notable alumni who have earned their places within the nation’s highest institutions, such as the Supreme Court. I heard these messages constantly when I attended St. Paul’s, one of the most exclusive New England boarding schools, where boys and girls broke rules with impunity, knowing that the school would protect them from the police and that their families would help ensure only the most trivial of consequences.

Related: [Trump lied about his wealth. Here are the tapes.]

This narrative of the exceptional student rests on a fiction with pathological consequences: Economist Raj Chetty has shown that children whose parents are in the top 1 percent of earners are 77 times more likely to attend an Ivy League school than are the children of poorer parents — meaning that, in cases like this, admission is less about talent and more about coming from the right family. In that way, privilege casts inherited advantages as “exceptional” qualities that justify special treatment. No wonder that, when the poor lie, they’re more likely to do so to help others, according to research by Derek D. Rucker, Adam D. Galinsky and David Dubois, whereas when the rich lie, they’re more likely to do it to help themselves.

Such selfish tendencies extend well beyond the way the privileged use untruths to their advantage. According to research by psychologists Paul Piff and Dacher Keltner, elites’ sense of their own exceptionalism helps instill within them a tendency to be less compassionate. This may have its roots in the fact that there seem to be two different sets of consequences for the rich and the rest. Take drug use. While the poor are no more likely to use drugs (in fact, among young people, it’s the richer kids who are more likely to drink alcohol or smoke marijuana), they are far more likely to be imprisoned for it, and they experience vastly disproportionate imprisonment for all crimes compared with the wealthy. In the end, it is impossible to separate success from class.

Kavanaugh’s privilege runs deep, and it shows. He grew up in a wealthy Washington suburb where his father spent three decades as CEO of a trade association. There has been a sense among his supporters that his place is deserved, which mirrors the climate of aristocratic inheritance he grew up around. His peers from the party of personal responsibility have largely rallied around him, seeking to protect his privilege. As a Bush-era White House press secretary, Ari Fleischer, put it: “How much in society should any of us be held liable today when we lived a good life, an upstanding life by all accounts, and then something that maybe is an arguable issue took place in high school? Should that deny us chances later in life?” American Conservative editor Rod Dreher wondered “why the loutish drunken behavior of a 17 year old high school boy has anything to tell us about the character of a 53 year old judge.”

This collective agreement that accountability doesn’t apply to Kavanaugh (and, by extension, anybody in a similar position who was a youthful delinquent) may help explain why he seems to believe he can lie with impunity — a trend he continued Thursday, when he informed senators that he hadn’t seen the testimony of his accuser, Christine Blasey Ford, even though a committee aide told the Wall Street Journal he’d been watching. In his furious interview with the panel that afternoon, Kavanaugh appeared astonished that anybody might impugn his character or try to keep him from the seat he is entitled to. “I’m never going to get my reputation back,” he complained.

Related: [I study liars. I’ve never seen one like the president.]

Guests wait to enter the Senate Judiciary Committee on Capitol Hill, in Washington.
A woman protesting Supreme Court nominee Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh is removed from the hallway near the Senate Judiciary Committee hearing room.
Republican members of the Senate Judiciary Committee listen to Democratic senators speak during a committee meeting.
Senate Judiciary Committee member Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) points out names on the high school calender of Brett M. Kavanaugh.
Female members of Congress stand in protest behind seated supporters.
Sen. Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.) speaks as members of the Senate Judiciary Committee meet to vote.
Female members of Congress walk out.
Sen. Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.) listens to Democratic senators speak.
Democrat Sens. Kamala D. Harris (D-Calif.) and Mazie Hirono (D-Hawaii) walk out of the Senate Judiciary Committee meeting.
Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-Iowa), right, confers with an aide.
Sen. Cory Booker (D-N.J.) looks past empty seats after Democratic members of the Senate Judiciary Committee walked out.
Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.) walks out.
Sen. Kamala D. Harris, a Democrat from California, speaks to members of the media after walking out.
Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-Wash.), top center, speaks to protesters.
A woman who said she is a survivor of a sexual assault, right, confronts Sen. Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.).
Photo Gallery: Several Democrats walk out of Kavanaugh meeting in protest.

Yet we cannot ignore that instead of dedicating his life to the relentless accumulation of wealth, Kavanaugh has pursued a career of public service. As a Justice Department aide to Kenneth Starr and, later, a judge, he earned a fraction of what he might have in the private sector. This represents another critical lesson of elite schools: servant leadership. The mission statement of my alma mater, for instance, professes “a commitment to engage as servant leaders in a complex world.” You are bred to be a leader who serves a higher ideal than your own advantage. Whatever you believe of his politics or his background, Kavanaugh’s commitment to public service cannot be denied.

While they seem contradictory, servant leadership and privilege are often bedfellows. Both suggest not a commonality with the ordinary American, but instead a standing above Everyman. Both justify locating power within a small elite because this elite is better equipped to lead. (Retired justice Anthony Kennedy, according to some reports, hand-picked Kavanaugh as his successor — a rather astonishing circumvention of the democratic process and the separation of powers.) Both have at their core not a commitment to shared democracy but a moral imperative to lead because of one’s exceptional qualities. And both allow space for lying in service of the greater good. Privilege means that things like perjury aren’t wrong under one’s own private law.

Twitter: @shamuskhan

Read more from Outlook:

Postmodernism didn’t cause Trump. It explains him.

Can a president who lies uphold his oath of office?

Follow our updates on Facebook and Twitter.

Shamus Khan, the chair of the sociology department at Columbia University, is the author of “Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul’s School.”

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