A mix of fossil fuels, nuclear and renew- ables power the globe

Percentage of world’s electricity in 2012 that was generated using these resources:

Coal

Natural gas

40.4%

22.5%

Renewables

Nuclear

Oil

21.2%

10.9%

5%

Coal includes peat and oil shale

Renewable energy sources include hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuels and waste, and other types.

The demands of a developing world require more electricity

In 1980, a little more than 8 million gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electricity were generated around the world. By 2012, the output nearly tripled as the global population increased and developing countries had a greater demand for electricity.

Total world output

22.7 million GWh

2012

1980

8.3 million GWh

2012 world output, by fuel source

In gigawatt-hours

The use of fossil fuels to produce electricity comes at a cost — CO2 emissions

Of all the fossil fuels, coal releases the largest amount of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity and heat produced, and it remains by far the most widely used fuel. In 2012, coal was responsible for 72 percent of electric-sector emissions; in the past three years, the growth in coal consumption has slowed.

Total global CO2 emissions

13,346 million tons

Other

2012

1980

5,482 million tons

CO2 emissions in 2012, by fuel source

2,740 Mt

942 Mt

Other CO2 fuel source emissions, not shown,

include industrial and municipal waste.

Renewable and nuclear sources are near-zero carbon generators

China, U.S., India, Russia and Japan create the most power — and emissions

Electricity and heat generation is the

largest single source of CO2 emissions

globally – larger than transportation or

any other sector.

World’s leading carbon polluters

Emissions increase or decrease since 1980

CO2 emissions

2012 rank

in 2012, in

millions of tons

1

China

4,104 Mt

+1,248%

U.S.

India

Russia*

Japan

Germany

S. Korea

S. Africa

Saudi Arabia

Australia

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

2,086

1,044

932

566

334

305

233

201

199

+36%

+1,163%

–20%

+91%

–16%

+1,108%

+145%

+718%

+127%

*Data prior to 1990 not available for Russia.

Since 1980

, India’s

India’s

carbon

emissions,

electricity capacity has

millions of tons

grown by a factor of

1,044

eight, and it still hopes

83

to extend electric power

1980

2012

to 300 million people

living without it.

4,104

China’s

carbon

emissions,

millions of

China’s electricity capacity today is nearly 20 times as large as it was in 1980.

tons

305

1980

2012

Coal power plants are the biggest polluters

72%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Coal is cheap, in part because of China’s economic slowdown, combined with the newly tapped abundant reserves of natural gas in the United States. This is placing significant negative pressure on efforts to develop and expand renewable sources of electricity — solar, wind and hydropower, among them. They are less able to compete economically.

Countries producing the most

CO2 emissions from coal in

2012, in millions of tons

Emissions increase or decrease since 1980

CO2 emissions

in 2012, in

2012 rank

millions of tons

1

China

4,015 Mt

+1,571%

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

U.S.

India

Russia

Japan

Germany

S. Africa

S. Korea

Australia

Poland

1,507

977

296

276

275

233

231

170

149

+32%

+1,264%

–32%

+337%

–18%

+145%

+6,768%

+112%

–31%

Natural gas emissions

21%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Of countries that use natural gas, U.S., Russia and Japan account for 48 percent of the world’s electricity and heat produced from this resource.

Countries producing the most

CO2 emissions from natural gas

in 2012, in millions of tons

Emissions increase or decrease since 1980

CO2 emissions

2012 rank

in 2012, in

millions of tons

1

Russia

567 Mt

+7%

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

U.S.

Japan

Iran

Saudi Arabia

Mexico

U.A.E.

Italy

Egypt

South Korea

531

175

80

77

61

59

56

52

52

+166%

+380%

+1,829%

+609%

+826%

+1,214%

+1,107%

+2,572%

+43,158%

Oil’s carbon footprint

7%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Saudi Arabia, Japan and Iran account for 44 percent of the world’s electricity and heat generated from oil.

Countries producing the most

CO2 emissions from oil in 2012,

in millions of tons

Emissions increase or decrease since 1980

CO2 emissions

2012 rank

in 2012, in

millions of tons

1

123 Mt

+805%

Saudi Arabia

Japan

Iran

Russia

Iraq

Mexico

Kuwait

Indonesia

U.S.

India

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

111

63

54

45

39

34

28

25

25

–44%

+577%

–73%

+716%

+25%

+535%

+319%

–87%

+147%

Note: Figures for CO2 emissions include fuels used

for electricity and heat generation. Percent changes

may not match rounded total displayed.

A mix of fossil fuels, nuclear and renewables sources power the globe

Percentage of world’s electricity that is generated using these resources:

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

Nuclear

Renewables

Coal includes peat and oil shale.

Renewable energy sources include hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuels and waste, and other types.

The demands of a developing world require more electricity

In 1980, a little more than 8 million GWh, or gigawatt-hours, of electricity were generated around the world. By 2012, the output nearly tripled as the global population increased and developing countries had a greater demand for electricity.

Global electricity generation in gigawatt-hours (GWh)

Total world output

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

Nuclear

Renewables

22.7 million GWh

9.2 million

5.1

1.1

2.5

4.8

2012

1980

3.1 million

1.0

1.7

0.7

1.8

8.3 million

Percentage change may not match because the totals have been rounded.

But the use of fossil fuels to produce electricity comes at a cost: CO2 emissions

Of all the fossil fuels, coal releases the largest amount of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity and heat produced, and it remains by far the most widely used fuel. In 2012, coal was responsible for 72 percent of electric-sector emissions; in the past three years, the growth in coal consumption has slowed.

Total global CO2 emissions in 2012, in millions of tons (Mt)

Total emissions

Renewable and nuclear sources are near-zero carbon generators

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

13,346 Mt

9,547

2,740

942

2012

Other CO2 fuel source

emissions, not shown,

include industrial and

1980

municipal waste.

5,482 Mt

3,466

634

1,378

China, U.S., India, Russia and Japan create the most power — and emissions

Electricity and heat generation is the largest single source of carbon dioxide emissions globally – larger than transportation or any other sector.

Global CO2 emissions in 2012, in millions of tons

South

Korea

EUROPE

NORTH AMERICA

Russia

932

97

CANADA

Germany

U.K.

179

POLAND

85

China

305

155

334

4,104 Mt

KAZAKHSTAN

UKRAINE

U.S.

132

SPAIN

2,086 Mt

ITALY

90

TURKEY

IRAN

127

113

Japan

145

566

India

1,044

201

EGYPT

133

MEXICO

73

90

MALAYSIA

Saudi

Arabia

OCEANIA

159

54

BRAZIL

South Africa

INDONESIA

199

54

ARGENTINA

233

MIDDLE EAST

SOUTH AMERICA

AFRICA

ASIA

Australia

Top 10 carbon-polluting countries in bold

Since 1980, India’s electricity capacity has grown by a factor of eight, and it still hopes to extend electric power to 300 million people living without it. China’s capacity today is nearly 20 times as large as it was in 1980. In sub-Saharan Africa, where just 24 percent of the population has access to electric power, demand is likely to grow exponentially in the years ahead.

Coal-burning power plants are the biggest polluters

72%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Coal is cheap, in part because of China’s economic slowdown, combined with the newly tapped abundant reserves of natural gas in the United States. This is placing significant negative pressure on efforts to develop and expand renewable sources of electricity — solar, wind and hydropower, among them. They are less able to compete economically.

Total CO2 emissions in 2012 from coal, in millions of tons

Carbon emissions from coal from the world’s leading coal burners —

China, the United States and India — accounted for nearly 50 percent

of all fossil fuel emissions.

Carbon footprint of natural gas

21%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Of countries that use natural gas, U.S., Russia and Japan account for 48 percent of the world’s electricity and heat produced from this resource.

Total CO2 emissions in 2012 from natural gas, in millions of tons

The outer ring represents total carbon emissions, in millions of tons, from electricity produced by coal, natural gas and oil.

Oil’s carbon footprint

7%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Japan, Saudi Arabia and Iran account for 44 percent of the world’s electricity and heat generated from oil.

Total CO2 emissions in 2012 from oil, in millions of tons

The outer ring represents total carbon emissions, in millions of tons, from electricity produced by coal, natural gas and oil.

Note: Figures for CO2 emissions include fuels used for electricity and heat generation.

A mix of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewables power the globe

Percentage of world’s electricity that is generated using these resources:

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

Nuclear

Renewables

Renewable energy sources include hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, biofuels and waste, and other types.

Coal includes peat and oil shale

The demands of a developing world require more electricity

In 1980, a little more than 8 million gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electricity were generated around the world. By 2012, the output

nearly tripled as the global population increased and developing countries had a greater demand for electricity.

Total world output

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

Nuclear

Renewables

22.7 million GWh

9.2

5.1

1.1

2.5

4.8

2012

1980

3.1

1.0

1.7

0.7

1.8

8.3 million GWh

Percentage change may not match because the totals have been rounded.

But the use of fossil fuels to produce electricity comes at a cost: CO2 emissions

Of all the fossil fuels, coal releases the largest amount of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity and heat produced, and it remains by far the most widely used fuel. In 2012, coal was responsible for 72 percent of electric-sector emissions; in the past three years, the growth in coal consumption has slowed.

Total CO2 emissions

Coal

Natural gas

Oil

13,346 million tons

9,547

2,740

942

Other

2012

Renewable and nuclear sources are near-zero carbon generators

Other CO2 fuel source emissions,

not shown, include industrial and

1980

municipal waste.

5,482 million tons

3,466

634

1,378

China, U.S., India, Russia and Japan create the most power — and emissions

Electricity and heat generation is the largest single source of carbon dioxide emissions globally — larger than transportation or any other sector. Since 1980, India’s electricity capacity has grown by a factor of eight, and it still hopes to extend electric power to 300 million people living without it. China’s capacity today is nearly 20 times as large as it was in 1980. In sub-Saharan Africa, where just 24 percent of the population has access to electric power, demand is likely to grow exponentially in the years ahead.

Total global CO2 emissions in 2012: 13,346 million tons

Top 10 carbon-polluting countries in bold

Russia

NORWAY

932

SWEDEN

NORTH KOREA

NETHERLANDS

CANADA

97

DENMARK

POLAND

U.K.

IRELAND

179

54

South Korea

85

KAZAKHSTAN

155

China

Germany

BELGIUM

305

U.S.

4,104

334

FRANCE

132

UKRAINE

46

2,086 million tons

TURKEY

90

PAKISTAN

42

127

113

Japan

145

IRAQ

SPAIN

GREECE

IRAN

566

ITALY

KUWAIT

48

ISRAEL

HONG KONG

QATAR

India

Saudi Arabia

ALGERIA

1,044

BANGLADESH

133

UAE

MEXICO

VIETNAM

EGYPT

MOROCCO

201

73

90

PHILIPPINES

MALAYSIA

ETHIOPIA

NIGERIA

VENEZUELA

159

KENYA

SINGAPORE

CONGO

54

BRAZIL

NEW ZEALAND

INDONESIA

199

CHILE

54

The ring represents total carbon emissions, in millions of tons, from electricity and heat produced

by coal, natural gas and oil.

South Africa

ARGENTINA

Australia

233

Coal-burning power plants are the biggest polluters

72%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Coal is cheap, in part because of China’s economic slowdown, combined with the newly tapped abundant reserves of natural gas in the United States. This is placing significant negative pressure on efforts to develop and expand renewable sources of electricity — solar, wind and hydropower, among them. They are less able to compete economically. Total CO2 emissions in 2012 from coal, in millions of tons:

Carbon emissions from coal from the world’s leading coal burners —

96 percent of China’s emissions come from coal.

China, the United States and India — accounted for nearly

50 percent of all fossil fuel emissions.

NETHERLANDS

U.K.

IRELAND

BELGIUM

The outer ring represents total carbon emissions, in millions of tons, from electricity produced by coal, natural gas and oil.

Carbon footprint of natural gas

Oil’s carbon footprint

21%

of all fossil fuel emissions

7%

of all fossil fuel emissions

Of countries that use natural gas, Russia, the United States and Japan account

Japan, Saudi Arabia and Iran account for 44 percent of the world’s electricity and heat generated from oil.

for 48 percent of the world’s electricity and heat produced from this fuel.

Total CO2 emissions in 2012, in millions of tons

Total CO2 emissions in 2012, in millions of tons

Top 3 countres in bold

The outer ring represents total carbon emissions, in millions of tons, from electricity produced by coal, natural gas and oil.

Note: Figures for CO2 emissions include fuels used for electricity and heat generation.


Source: International Energy Agency

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